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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

The act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee or doing a particular
job.
- Edwin B. Flippo

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

OBJECTIVES OF THE CHAPTER


What is training, development and education
Significance of training
Importance of training
Responsibilities for providing training
Training needs
Methods of training for employees
Evaluation of training
Management Development
Techniques of executive development
Need for Management development

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT


Training
Training refers to he instructions provided to increase the knowledge and skill for the
current job.
Training aims at achieving immediate gains for the organization.

Development
Development has a broader scope and aims at developing an individual in all
respects
The development programmes include a course in management information systems
that help the organization to develop into efficient one in the long run
Organization takes up executive development programmes to enhance the
capabilities, potential and creative instinct of the managers enabling them to be more
effective in performing various managerial functions to achieve predetermined goals.

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
1 Better performance
2 Less supervision
3 Economy in use of material and equipment
4 Increased morale
5 Uniformity and standardization
6 Less learning time
7 Effective management
8 Filling human resource requirements

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS


1 Analysis of organization
2 Job Analysis
3 Analysis of technical impact
4 Interviews
5 Discussion among experts
6 Business games technique

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING METHOD


1 Position rotation or job rotation
2 Understudy method
3 Coaching
4 Job instruction training method
5 Committee assignment method
6 Apprenticeship training method
7 Special meetings of the staff

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING METHOD


1 Vestibule training
2 Lecture method
3 Role playing
4 Conferences and seminars
5 Films and slide show
6 Programmed instructions
7 University & College degree courses

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

TECHNIQUES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT


A ON-THE-JOB Method
Coaching
Job Rotation
Understudy
Multiple management
B OFF-THE-JOB Method
Sensitivity training
Case Study
Simulation exercises
Management games
Managerial grid
Role playing
Incident method
In Basket method
Conference
Lectures
Programmes by academic institution
Transactional analysis

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

HOW TO DESIGN A TRAINING PROGRAMME


1

Discovering or identifying the training needs

William Berliner and William McLarney say that discovering training needs involves
five tasks.
a.) Task Description Analysis
1. List the duties and responsibilities or tasks of the job under consideration,
using the Job Description as a guide.
2. List the standards of work performance on the job.
b.) Determining Training Needs
3. Comparing actual performance against the standards
4. Determine what parts of the job are giving the employee trouble where is he
falling down in is performance?
5. Determine what kind of training is needed to overcome the specific difficulty or
difficulties.

Getting ready for the job

Who is to be trained the newcomer or the older employee, or the supervisory staff,
or all of them selected from different departments.

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

HOW TO DESIGN A TRAINING PROGRAMME


3

Preparation of the learner

1. In putting the learner at ease (so that he does not feel nervous because of the
fact he is on a new job).
2. In stating the importance and ingredients of the job, and its relationship to work
flow.
3. In explaining why he is being taught.
4. In creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what the learner
already knows about his job or other jobs.
5. In explaining him why the whole job and relating it to some job the worker
already knows.
6. In placing the learner as close to his normal working position as possible
7. In familiarizing him with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.

Presentation of operations and knowledge

The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to put over the
new knowledge and operations.

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

HOW TO DESIGN A TRAINING PROGRAMME


5

Performance try-out

The trainee is then tested and the effectiveness of a training programme evaluated.
This is usually done by:
1.

Giving written or oral tests to trainees to ascertain how far they have learnt the
techniques and principles taught to them and the scores obtained by them.

2.

Observing trainees on the job itself and administering performance tests to them.

3.

Finding out individuals or a groups reaction to the training programme while it is


in progress and getting them to fill up evaluation sheets.

4.

Arranging structured interviews with the participants or sending them


questionnaires by mail.

5.

Eliciting the opinion or judgment of the top management about the trainees
performance

6.

Comparing the results obtained after the training with those secured before the
training programme.

7.

Study of profiles and charts of career development of the participants and


related assignment techniques.

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

HOW TO DESIGN A TRAINING PROGRAMME


6

Follow-up and Evaluation of the programme

1.

Putting a trainee on his own

2.

Checking frequently to be sure that he has followed instructions

3.

Tapering off extra supervision and close follow-up until he is qualified to work
with normal supervision.

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

EVALUATION OF TRAINING AND


DEVELOPMENT
Main dimensions of evaluation:
1.

Evaluation of contextual factors

2.

Evaluation of training inputs

3.

Evaluation of the training process

4.

Evaluation of training outcomes

Reaction Evaluation
Opinion surveys of participants or of people who have seen the participants in
actions are reaction evaluations

Outcome Evaluation
A.

Immediate

B.

Intermediate

C. Ultimate

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

PROVEN PRINCIPLES FOR EVALUATION


Proven principles for Evaluation
Evaluation must be planned. What is to be evaluated, when, by what means, and by
whom must be determined in advance
Evaluation must be objective
Evaluation must be verifiable
Evaluation must be co-operative
Evaluation must be continuous
Evaluation must be specific, i.e., it should tell about specific strengths and
weaknesses and should not make vague generalizations.
Evaluation must be quantitative
Evaluation must be feasible
Evaluation must be cost effective, i.e., the results must be commensurate with the
cost incurred

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

STRATEGY FOR DEVISING AN EFFICIENT TRAINING


MECHANISM
A brief list of techniques and their descriptions is given below:
Sr No.

Techniques

Description

1.

Audio visuals

Use of video films, and slides for greater impact.

2.

Brainstorming

Discussions on developing innovative solutions.

3.

Case Study

Problem solving discussions.

4.

Computer-based training

Use of software to learn skills.

5.

Communication games

To build bias-free listening and talking.

6.

Creativity games

To evolve multitude of solutions to problems.

7.

Delegation

Learning the importance of decentralization.

8.

Doubling

Bringing out ideas that are not often expressed.

9.

Games

Structured tests of skills and aptitude.

10.

Ice breakers

To get team members to know each other.

11.

In basket exercises

Evaluating managers response to imaginary items.

12.

Induction programme

Orientation programme for new recruits

13.

Leadership games

To teach different types of leadership styles.

Techniques

Description

14.

Lectures

Presentation of introductory material

15.

Mirroring

Training with an external perspective

16.

Monodrama

Insight into a given interaction.

17.

Negotiation

Role play to develop bargaining skills.

18.

On-the-job training

Training at work site under supervision.

19.

Programmed instructions

Methodical breakdown topic.

AND

DEVELOPMENT

Sr No.

20.

Role play

Adoption of roles other than their own.

21.

Role reversal

To teach plurality of viewpoints.

22.

Self-directed learning

Learning at ones own pace.

TRAINING

STRATEGY FOR DEVISING AN EFFICIENT TRAINING


MECHANISM

23.

Shadowing

Working under a senior to watch and learn.

24.

Simulation

Recreation of actual working conditions.

25.

Skill games

To develop analytical abilities

26.

Strategic planners

To test ability to plan ahead

27.

Stress management

Techniques to contain work related stress.

28.

Team building games

Exercises requiring collaborative efforts.

DEVELOPMENT
AND
TRAINING

INDUCTION TRAINING
Induction Training:
Induction training exposes the new recruit to the various business divisions,
functional departments and work centers.

How to conduct Induction Training?


Identify training and development requirements
Develop course objectives
Develop enabling objectives

Examples
Mphasis-BFL Limited, Bangalore
Indian Airlines
Siemens India Limited
Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd
Ranbaxy
Eicher Group