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EE503 IC FABRICATION AND

PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO IC
Definition of integrated circuit:
Integrated circuit
a complex set of tiny components and their
interconnections that are imprinted onto a tiny slice of
semiconductor material (e.g silicon). Integrated circuits are
usually called ICs or chips.

History of Semiconductor Industry

History of Semiconductor Industry

History of Semiconductor Industry

Functions of IC
Most electronic equipment today use integrated circuit, for
example:
Computer / Server / workstation
TV / Radio / Video
Cell Phones
Digital Clock
Robotic Systems
Telecommunication System
Automotive
Medical Equipment
Aerospace
Children's Toys
Military Field
Missile System
etc.

Advantages of IC
i.

Small

ii. Low Cost


iii. Very Low Weight
iv. Low power consumption
v. High reliability
vi. Easy replacement

Microelectronics Evolution
Year

Technology

No. of

Example

1947-1950

Transistor

1951 -1960

Discrete Component

FET, Diode

1961 -1966

SSI

10

Logic Gates, Flip-flop

100 1000

Counter, Multiplexer

transistors
1

- Small scale integration


1967-1971

MSI
- Medium scale integration

1972-1980

LSI

1000 20,000

RAM, Microprocessor

- Large scale integration


1981 -1990

VLSI

20,000 1,000,000

16 bits and 32 bits Microprocessor

- Very large scale integration


1990-2000

ULSI
- Ultra large scale integration

2000 nowadays

GSI
- Giga scale integration

1,000,000
10,000,000
> 10,000,000

Graphic microprocessor

IC Integration Scales

18

In 1975, he
updated his
prediction to
once every 1824 months.

IC Integration Scales

Factors that contribute to the accuracy


of Moores Law
Miniaturization size of
transistor from 10m
(micron) to submicron.
Nowadays, the smallest
transistor is 45nm
(0.045m).
The law is still disputed
because the linear
growth starts to
decline; the number of
transistors should
increase linearly, but it
starts to decrease after
1970.

Classification of Integrated Circuit


In general, IC can be classified into FOUR (4)
categories :
Classification based on the fabrication

method

Classification based on transistor type


Classification based on circuits function
Classification based on design methodology

Classification Based on Fabrication Method


IC Classification based on fabrication method:
a. Monolithic
b. Film
c. Hybrid

Classification Based on Fabrication Method


a. Monolithic
The word monolithic is derived from the Greek word
monos, meaning single and lithos, meaning stone.
A monolithic IC is a miniaturized electronic circuit
including both active and passive components
and their interconnections are being manufactured in
the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor
material.

Monolithic IC

Monolithic IC
-Advantages of monolithic IC:
-- most popular because of low cost.
- high reliability.
Disadvantages of monolithic IC:
- isolation weakness
- limited range of passive components.
- circuit design is not flexible.

Classification Based on Fabrication Method


b. Film
Film components are made of either
conductive or nonconductive material that is
deposited in desired patterns on a ceramic or
glass substrate.
Film can only be used as passive circuit
components, such as resistors and capacitors.
Transistors and/or diodes are added to the
substrate to complete the circuit.

Film IC

Classification Based on Fabrication Method


c. Hybrid IC
Hybrid integrated circuit technology is the
combination of monolithic circuits and film
technology.
The active components are monolithic transistors or
diodes. The passive components may be group of
monolithic resistors or capacitors on a single chip, or
they may be thin-film components. Wiring or a
metallized pattern provides connections between
chips.

Hybrid IC

Hybrids ICs are widely used for high power audio amplifier
applications from 5 W to more than 50 W.

Hybrid IC
Hybrid ICs usually have better performance
than monolithic ICs.
However, the process is too expensive for
mass production. Thus, multi-chip techniques
are quite economical for small quantity
production and are more often used as
prototypes for monolithic ICs.

Fabrication Method Comparison


Characteristics

Monolithic Technology

Film Technology

Hybrid Technology

Type of components

Active and passive

Passive (Resistor &


Capacitor)

Active and passive

Substrate material

Silicon (Si)
Germanium(Ge)
Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)

Conduction layer on
insulator (glass,
ceramic)

Silicon and insulator

Interconnection
method

On substrate surface

Metal (Al or gold)

Interconnection of
two or more chips

Technology method

BJT, MOS,GaAs

Thin film = 0.5m


Thick film = 25m

Combination of
monolithic and film

Size

Medium

Small

Large

Classification of IC based on transistor type

Types of transistor

BIPOLAR
JUNCTION
TRANSISTOR(BJT)
NPN
PNP

MOS
PMOS
NMOS
CMOS
VMOS

BiCMOS

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

NPN

PNP

Cross section and Symbol

Cross section and Symbol

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)


Advantages Of BJT:

i. High switching speed


ii. High durability
iii. High power handling capability
Disadvantages Of BJT:

i. High power dissipation


ii. Large chip size
iii. Temperature sensitive

MOS IC
MOS transistor is known as MOSFET (metal oxide

semiconductor field-effect transistor).


MOSFET is widely used nowadays in electronic
equipment, e.g. mobile phone, computer, medical
electronic equipment, etc.
Examples of MOS technology are:
i. PMOS
ii. NMOS
iii. CMOS
iv. VMOS

PMOS & NMOS

PMOS Cross Section

NMOS Cross Section

PMOS Symbol

NMOS Symbol

CMOS

CMOS Cross
Section :

2-input NAND gate symbol


Schematic diagram of 2input NAND gate using
CMOS

VMOS
One of the disadvantages of CMOS

technology is the disability of handling high


power.
VMOS is invented to overcome the problem.
VMOS has the capability to operate in high
current and voltage.

VMOS
VMOS is the acronym of Vertical Metal Oxide

Semiconductor.
VMOS has the V shape gate to conduct more carriers
vertically from SOURCE to DRAIN.
G

S
+

BiCMOS
BiCMOS is the acronym of bipolar complementary

metal oxide semiconductor , the technology that


combines BJT and CMOS on the same chip to
generate high speed and high concentration circuit.

Advantages & Disadvantages of MOS technology

MOS
Transistor
Types

Advantage

PMOS

i. Low fabrication cost.


ii. Simple fabrication method.

NMOS

i. Smaller size compared to PMOS.


ii. High circuit performance.

VMOS

i. Low circuit performance (slow).


This is because the hole current
mobility is two times slower than
electron.
i. Fabrication process is more difficult
compare to PMOS.

i. Low power dissipation.

i. Larger size compared to PMOS and


NMOS.

i. High circuit performance (high


speed).
ii. Low power dissipation.

i. Larger chip size.


ii. Complex fabrication process.
iii. High fabrication cost.

i. Capable of operating in high


current and voltage.
ii. High circuit performance (high
speed).

i. Complex fabrication process.


ii. High fabrication cost.

CMOS
BiCMOS

Disadvantage

Classification Based on Circuits Function


Integrated Circuit

Linear / Analog
Integrated circuits that operate with
analogue signal at the input and output continuous sine wave signal .
Examples:
i. Op-Amp
ii. Power Amplifier
iii. Multiplier
iv. Comparator
v. Voltage Regulator

Digital
Integrated circuits that operate with
digital signal at the input and output
Discrete square wave signal
Examples:
i.
Logic gates
ii. Flip-flop
iii. Counter
iv. Calculator chips
v. Memory
vi. Microprocessor

Analog and Digital IC