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Adverse Incorporation and

Social Exclusion
Lecture 4

Volunteering _8GZjZTZrWA
Please check the resources in Moodle.

How do we use the analytical

lens of political economy to
understand chronic poverty?

Adverse Incorporation and

Social Exclusion
An analytical framework that
a) Helps us to understand the causes of
poverty marginalization, and inequality
b) Provides us a language to communicate this
complexity to policy makers / development
agencies / academic literature

Is a means through which we can

operationalize our understanding of the
political economy and its effects

Recap Structural
Which of the following is NOT true
a. Structural conditions are the
consequences of poverty and
b. Structural conditions are the
broader systems and processes
that affect peoples livelihoods
and well-being compared to
c. Structural conditions affect all
people within a given social or
economic order: some benefit,
some are adversely affected
d. Structural conditions include
political, economic and
ideological systems

Please go to:
Log in as student
Room Number:
Responses are

Recap: Define Structural

Structural conditions: the broader
political and economic systems and
processes that affect peoples
livelihoods and well-being compared
to others
Structural conditions affect all people
within a given social or economic
order: some benefit, some are
adversely affected

What is Structural Violence?

Structural violence
is the effect of a
systemic imbalance
in society that
prefers the interests
of some over others.
Structural violence
kills people slowly
by depriving them of
their basic needs.
Institute for Policy Research and Development:

How do we explain poverty and

Explanations based on
characteristics and

Low income
Dependency ratios
Wealth / assets

Depoliticizes poverty
by individualizing the
causes of poverty
The effects of poverty
often presented as
the cause
Simplifies the
complexity of issues
Offer technical

How do we explain poverty and

Explanations based on structures, processes
and relations of poor and non-poor
Why do some people get high wages and others
low wages (share of surplus)?
How do some groups monopolize opportunities?
How is one persons wealth and wellbeing
related to anothers poverty?

Highlights the political and relational nature

of poverty and wealth, as well as the

Telangana, Andhra Pradesh,


Livelihoods in agrarian

Why is Geetha Lakshmi poor? Will

her children also be poor? Why?

Go to Socrative Room Number: DVYSWVC9

Individual Characteristics

Low income
Low education
Poor employment prospects
Dalit / scheduled caste

What dont these characteristics tell

They indicate correlation, but not
causation. That is, they say what poor
people usually look like (they are dalit
e.g.) not why dalit people are poor
Do not indicate the structural
conditions of poverty
Are static, rather than looking at the
processes that make people poor, and
the children of poor parents poor

Social Exclusion
the process through which
individuals or groups are wholly or
partially excluded from the society in
which they live (Hickey and du Toit
2007, 2)
a way of analyzing how and why
individuals and groups fail to have
access or benefit from the
possibilities offered by societies and
economies (quoted in Fischer 2011,

Social exclusion
Useful for understanding social
stratification, marginalization,
discrimination, disadvantage
Although often related to poverty,
people can be socially excluded,
even if they are not poor

Examples of Social
Illegal immigrants excluded from
citizenship and the rights it entails

Examples of Social

Exclusion of citizens from obtaining

their state entitlements

Women submitting documents for the widow pension in


Examples of Social

Exclusion from political

representation or participating in

In the current government it helps to be white and male

Examples of Social
Exclusion from
opportunities in the
formal economy
Exclusion from

Examples of Social
Spatial exclusion

security check Indian shopping

Sao Paulo

Material: resource
hoarding (e.g. privileged
access to key
Political: Gains through
monopolizing political /
bureaucratic power
Social / cultural: the use
of social prestige to gain
access to power
resources and the
stigmitisation of others;
exclusive social group

Material: loss of access to
productive resources,
exclusion from key
occupations, distress sale
of assets, economic shocks
Political: restricted access
to civic resources, political
participation, civil rights,
quality education or health
Social / cultural: closed
access to resources due to
ascribed identity or
stigmatization, social

From Davis 2011: 9, see Moodle for full details

In what ways does Geetha and her

family suffer social exclusion?
Socrative Room Number: DVYSWVC9

In what ways does Geetha and her

family suffer social exclusion?
Excluded from job opportunities due to gender
Son is excluded from formal job opportunities due to
lack of connections (or bribe)
Excluded from receiving government entitlements
due to
lack of caste connections
Illiteracy (stigma and embarrassment)

Cannot marry daughter into higher caste / non

labouring family
Past explicit spatial exclusion due to caste, now
implicit due to social norms of cleanliness
Exclusion from social life and getting government
schemes due to being illiterate

Problems with explanations based

only on social exclusion
assume[s] the goodness of inclusion
andnormative assumptions about
how social life should be organised
(Hickey and du Toit 3)
Bring people into the market! E.g.
microfinance for women
Inclusion can be inequitable
Lacks a focus on agency, victimizes
the poor

Adverse Incorporation
poverty persists also because of the
disadvantageous ways in which
people are incorporated into
economic and social life in
disadvantageous ways (du Toit and
Neve 2007)

The term adverse incorporation draws

attention to relationships where a party

extracts disproportionate benefits from
anothers efforts, even while the
disadvantaged party may be included in other
ways. Thus the idea of adverse
incorporation challenges the assumption that
social inclusion is always beneficial, and
encourages a more nuanced analysis which
includes groups who gain from other peoples
disadvantage (Davis 2011, 4).

Adverse Incorporation
Recognizes that sometimes it is not
exclusion that is the problem, but the
terms under which people are included
Considers both structure and agency
People may need to accept poor
conditions, even when this is detrimental
in the long term (practical versus
Considers unequal power to set and
accept terms of incorporation

Examples of Adverse
Being paid a very
low wage (where a
large proportion of
the surplus value is

Examples of Adverse
excessive tasks for
the benefit of
others (including
the family)

Examples of Adverse
Taking loans under duress with
unreasonable terms

Examples of Adverse
Receiving adverse terms of trade for
inputs and outputs

Dowry and Bride Groom


Material: appropriation of
surplus value; gains from
exploitative dowry
arrangements; interest
earned from distress loans
Political: extraction of
benefits from direct or
indirect control over
means of violence (e.g.
Social / cultural: extracting
surplus through
possession of social /
educational resources

Material: extraction of
surplus by owners of
capital; losses in dowry,
paying of interest or
loss of assets
Political: losses due to
extraction by
domination, losses due
to extortion and
Social / cultural:
restricted autonomy of
women, low prestige

From Davis 2011: 9, see Moodle for full details

In what ways does Geetha and her

family suffer adverse incorporation?
Socrative Room Number: DVYSWVC9

In what ways does Geetha and her

family suffer adverse incorporation?
Father and mother in exploitative bonded labour
Indebted from loans for dowry and education
Transfer of wealth from bride family to groom
Appropriation of surplus due to low daily wages
Exploitation works everyday for survival
Costs of market goods increased relative to wages
Son paid only on a commission basis
Paid a lot (relative to income) for education, but
could not acquire sufficient educational capital to
make him competitive

AISE What it tells us

structure and (constrained) agency, and how
these are inter-related
poverty as an historical process, and the
winners and losers of that process
Captures the intergenerational nature of
the multi-dimensional aspects of poverty
the political aspects of poverty
how people benefit from the exclusion or
exploitation of others

AISE Residual versus

The residual approach views poverty as
a consequence of being left out of
development processes and contains
the assumption that development brings
growth and that what is required is to
integrate people into markets. Relational
approaches emphasize the extent to
which development growth and the
workings of markets can also produce
poverty (Hickey and du Toit 2007, 5)

Using AISE to understand

Why are UKs poor getting poorer?
Watch this film and answer this question
using the AISE approach we have
Think outside the box, and also critically
of the film
How can we connect the situation in the
UK to what we have discussed in the
previous weeks
RTk8JPXQi_s (until 10mins is enough)

Coffee Break

Write in your own words

The definition of Adverse
Incorporation and Social exclusion?
What can we use an AISE approach
for, and what are its advantages over
other ways of explaining chronic

What is the significance of global

capitalism and neoliberalism for

Global capitalism and neoliberalism

establish the structural conditions in
which people are socially excluded,
and the terms under which they are
Decentralization and fragmentation
absentee landlords (Bauman)
Flexible accumulation (Robinson)
Neoliberal economic and political
practices (Harvey)

More specifically
Exclusions from the market based on
global competition
Exclusions from government services
due to the limited role of the state
The deterioration of working conditions
leading to adverse incorporation into the
labour market
Dominance of MNCs determine the
terms of trade for inputs and outputs

Phillips et al. (2014)

Argue that capitalist production in the
global garment industry creates the
conditions in which children are
incorporated into the sector under
adverse conditions
Competition among producers leads to
an emphasis on reducing the share of
surplus to labourers
Need for flexible workforce to meet
changing production demands

Phillips et al. 2014

Social exclusion compels some people
to accept these terms of incorporation
Women cannot get work in other sectors
Socio-economic conditions compels
children to work
Low caste makes it difficult to get jobs in
sectors which are dominated by high

Emphasizes that global structural

conditions intersect with local norms

In what ways are Geetha and her family

adversely incorporated into global
production or service chains?
Agro-commercial industry, in which high
input costs squeezes wages
The telecommunication sector, in which
high competition pushes down the
wages paid to sellers (commission only)
Commercial providers of education
(mostly local, but also some
The scarcity of the state (Gupta 2012)
reduction of state welfare

Using AISE to understand

Use the concepts of AISE to discuss this
In what way is the family socially excluded?
In what way are they adversely incorporated?
How is this AISE linked to global production of
Who benefits from their adverse incorporation
and social exclusion?
(Check the time, 8 min)

Week 4 Feedback
On Socrative Room Number:
DVYSWVC9 or on paper
questionnaire, please provide
feedback on the course so far.

Poster Presentation
A poster presentation presents an
argument using text, graphics
(tables, diagrams, pictures) in a
poster form
It is accompanied by a 5 minute oral
presentation, in which one person
describes the poster

Produce a poster that examines
climate change or environmental
destruction to one of the key
concepts / frameworks discussed in the
course, i.e.
Structural Violence
Adverse Incorporation and Social Exclusion

Argue for a particular position, in which
the aim is to persuade your audience
Present both sides of a debate, in which
the aim is to stimulate your audience to
make up their own mind. Argument:
complexity or importance of issue
Describe a situation, in which the aim is
to provoke or enrage your audience to
take action. Argument: this issue needs
urgent attention

The best posters will:

Have a clear argument
Contain material including academic
sources that supports this argument
The material will be coherent, so that the
different parts of the poster are integrated
Will relate to the course themes and core
Will demonstrate team work
Presentation is important, but not at the
expense of content and coherence

Team Work

We all have something to contribute,

and this assessment exercise is
designed to allow students with
different strengths to work together
to produce quality work

Reflect on your contribution

Listening to different ideas and bringing them
In-depth reading of academic texts
Reflection on everyday life
Making connections between themes, concepts
and contemporary issues
Graphics or the visual presentation of material
Writing in a clear and concise way
Motivation and team morale
Verbal presentation skills
Making innovative arguments
Research skills, looking at web resources

Time for groups to meet during the lecture
period next week (week 5)
I will be available for consultations during
this period, in addition to the usual time
Friday 10am - 1.15pm
Posters will be presented during tutorials
the following week (week 6)

Details in course outline and on Moodle
Within the group, should read at least 1
academic text each in addition to refering
to course readings
Refer to websites

Resources for Group Poster
Guardian pages on climate change, for blogs, news articles, facts and

Climate Justice Programmaking the polluters pay
Choose a selection of articles from the special issue of Development and
Change, about Capitalism and Climate Change, 2009, Volume 40, Issue 6.
Clark, Brett and Richard York (2005) Carbon Metabolism: global capitalism,
climate change, and the biospheric rift, Theory and Society, 34(4): 391-428.
Costanza, Robert (2009) Could Climate Change Capitalism Nature 458:
I expect one academic reference per student for each poster.

Next Week
Work on your group presentation
during the lecture period
See me in my office (MB142) if you
are facing any difficulties
Week after, Hegemony, ideology and

Davis, Peter (2011) Social Exclusion and adverse incorporation in
rural Bangladesh: evidence from a mixed methods study of poverty
dynamics, Chronic Poverty research Centre Working Paper No. 193.
Fisher, Andrew M. (2011). Reconceiving Social Exclusion, BWPI
Working Paper 146.
Mosse, David 2010. A Relational Approach to Durable Poverty,
Inequality and Power, Journal of Development Studies, 46(7): 11561178.
du Toit, A. and D. Neves (2007) in Search of South Africas Second
Economy: Chronic Poverty economic marginalisation and adverse
incorporation in Mt Frere and Khayelitsha, CPRC Working paper No.