Sie sind auf Seite 1von 19

Environmental Protection and

Pollution Control (ECP 415)

LECTURER
Mr J.Govha

OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
Definitions
Environmental Ethics and EIA
Environmental Crisis Due to Industrial
Development
Environmental Acts and Rules
Effects of Pollutants to Eco-system and Human
Health

Effluent treatment and toxicity control.


Plume behaviour

WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT?

Environment is the aggregate/ensemble of


physical, chemical, biological and social
components capable of causing direct or
indirect effects, in the short or long term, on
living beings and human activities.
(SOURCE United Nations Conference on Environment, 1972)

WHAT IS POLLUTION?
The discharge or release of matter or energy
into the environment in a direct or indirect
way in quantities or concentrations that will
result in negatively impacting the current and
later use of the environment.

CLASSIFICATION OF
POLLUTION

Pollution can be classified following different criteria.


a)According the medium in which it occurs:
air (or atmospheric) pollution,
water and
soil/land pollution.

b)Depending on who/what produced pollution (the source).


Antropic pollution
natural pollution

c)Depending on the location of the source:


emissions can be due to mobile or
stationary sources (point source).

d)Depending on the chemical transformations of the


pollutants.
primary pollutant
Secondary pollutants

ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND EIA


Traditionally, industries and its basic components were designed based upon technical and
economic considerations only but It is know essential to consider environment, health and
safety as factors during design.
Environmental ethics is related to attitude of people towards other living beings and
environment.
During any project, though it is essential that economic sustainability is attained; however, it is
also essential that ecological sustainability and social sustainability are also attained.

Impact assessment is a handy tool to assess the environmental compatibility of the projects in
terms of their location, suitability of technology, efficiency in resources utilization and recycling,

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has now been made a prerequisite for the settling up
of new projects and renewal of licenses of old and existing plants.
EIA is a major instrument in decision making and for measurement of sustainability in the
context of the regional carrying capacity. It provides the conceptual framework for extending the
cumulative assessment of development policies, plans and projects on a regional basis.

Sustainable development of chemical process industries is a process in which the exploitation of resources
and the direction of the investments are all made consistent with future as well as present consideration.

The primary causes of industrial pollution are:


Use of out-dated and inefficient technologies.
Development of unplanned industrial conglomerations
The existence of large number of small scale
industries without defining land use patterns and
environmental regulations for them
Poor enforcement of pollution control laws for big and
small industries

ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS DUE TO


INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
Large scale contamination of water and air.
Deforestation
Increase in urban slums
Generation of huge solid waste consisting of hazardous material.
Water scarcity and ground water depletion.
Global warming
Greenhouse effect
Ozone layer depletion

Environmental

Acts

and

Rules

The Environmental Management Agency (EMA) is a


statutory
body
established
under
the
Environmental Management Act [Chapter 20:27]
and
operationalised on the 17th of March 2003 through SI
103 of 2003.
The act was created to provide for the sustainable
management of natural resources and protection of the
environment; the prevention of pollution and
environmental degradation; the preparation of a National
Environmental Plan and other plans for the management
and protection of the environment

The following acts were repealed to


accommodate the EMA Act:
the Natural Resources Act [Chapter 20:13]
the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act [Chapter 20:03]
the Hazardous Substances and Articles Act [Chapter 15:05]
the Noxious Weeds Act [Chapter 19:07],

Environmental
rights
and
principles
environmental management are
Every person shall have a right to

of

a) a clean environment that is not harmful to health;


b)access environmental information, and protect the
environment for the benefit of present and future
generations
and
to
participate
in
the
implementation of the promulgation of reasonable
legislative, policy and other measures

Major environmental laws dealing with protection


of environment are:
Effluent and Solid Waste Disposal Regulations SI 6, 2007
EIA and Ecosystems Protection Regulations SI 7, 2007
Hazardous Waste Management Regulations SI 10, 2007
Hazardous Substances, Pesticides and Toxic Substances Regulations SI
12, 2007

Air Pollution Control Regulations SI 72, 2009


Importation and Transit of Hazardous Substances and Waste Regulations
SI 77, 2009

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS TO ECO-SYSTEM AND HUMAN


HEALTH :

Gaseous and particulate pollutants


General effects

Greenhouse effect
Ozone depletion
acidification
smog formation
eutrophication
human health

Specific effects of pollutants


Nitrogen Dioxide: NO2

brownish gas irritates the respiratory system originates from combustion (N 2 in air is
oxidized); NOx sum of NO, NO2, other oxides of N)

Ozone: ground level O3

primary constituent of urban smog


reaction of VOC + NOx in presence of heat +sun light

Carbon monoxide: CO

reduces bloods ability to carry O2


product of incomplete combustion

Particulate Matter: PM10 (PM 2.5)

respiratory disorders

Sulfur Dioxide: SO2

formed when fuel (coal, oil) containing S is burned and metal smelting
precursor to acid rain along with NOx

Liquid

effluent

Some of the risks include


pollutant runoff from agricultural lands
storm-water flows from cities
sanitary sewers overflow and release raw sewage to streets and
waterbodies.

seepage into ground water from nonpoint sources


the loss of habitats such as wetlands.

we cannot always eat what we catch because fish flesh is


contaminated by the remaining discharges and sources of
toxic substances.

Microbial contamination of drinking water still presents


problems in many communities.

The relationship between solid waste and human disease


is difficult to prove. The improper handling of solid waste is
a health hazard and causes damage to the environment
The main risks to human health arise due to the breeding
of disease vectors- primarily flies and rates. At has been
estimated that in warm climates, exposed garbage
produces as many as 70000 flies per 0.03m 3 in a week.

Solid waste
Some of the risks include
pollutant runoff from agricultural lands
storm-water flows from cities

sanitary sewers overflow and release raw sewage to streets and


waterbodies.

seepage into ground water from nonpoint sources


the loss of habitats such as wetlands.

we cannot always eat what we catch because fish flesh is


contaminated by the remaining discharges and sources of
toxic substances.

Microbial contamination of drinking water still presents


problems in many communities.

Need for effluent treatment and toxicity,


control