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Networks and Telecommunications, Chapter 2 presentation slides

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Properties of media

Wires, fiber optics, wireless

Bandwidth, attenuation, noise

Representing bits, noise

Fundamental limits

Nyquist, Shannon

Satellite Communication

Public Switched Telephone Network

Mobile Telephone System

Cable Television

Foundation on which other layers build

Properties of wires, fiber, wireless limit what the network

can do

Concerns how signals are used to transfer message bits

over a link

Wires etc. carry analog signals

We want to send digital bits

10110

Signal

10110

Transmission medium

Media propagate signals that carry bits of information

Media have different properties, hence performance

Reality check (Storage media)

Send data on tape / disk / DVD for a high bandwidth link

Mail one box with 1000 800GB tapes (6400 Tbit)

Takes one day to send (86,400 secs)

Data rate is 70 Gbps.

Data rate is faster than long-distance networks!

But, the message delay is very poor.

Transmission medium

Link Terminology

Full-duplex link

Used for transmission in both directions at once

e.g., use different twisted pairs for each direction

Half-duplex link

Both directions, but not at the same time

e.g., senders take turns on a wireless channel

Simplex link

Only one fixed direction at all times; not common

Guided Transmission

Signals propagate in solid media: copper, fiber

Wires:

Twisted pairs

Coaxial cable

Power lines

Fiber cables

Very common; used in LANs and telephone lines

Twists reduce radiated signal (interference)

UTP

STP

Physical Media

insulated copper wires typically about

1 mm thick

The wires are twisted together in a

helical form

High bandwidth and High attenuation

channel

Flexible and cheap cable

Category rating based on number of

twists, the diameter and the material

used:

CAT 3, CAT 4, CAT 5, CAT5e, CAT 6

and CAT 6a

CAT 5e and CAT 6 are currently the

most common Ethernet cables used.

Also common. Better shielding and more bandwidth for

longer distances and higher rates than twisted pair.

BNC connector

Category

Impedance

Use

RG-59

75

Cable TV

RG-58

50

Thin Ethernet

RG-11

50

Thick Ethernet

Household electrical wiring is another example of wires

Convenient to use, but horrible for sending data

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Fiber Cables

Common for high rates and long distances

Long distance ISP links, Fiber-to-the-Home

Light carried in very long, thin strand of glass

Light source

(LED, laser)

Light trapped by

total internal reflection

repeaters spaced far apart

immune to electromagnetic noise

Photodetector

Single-mode

Core so narrow (10um) light

cant even bounce around

Used with lasers for long

distances, e.g., 100km

Multi-mode

Other main type of fiber

Light can bounce (50um core)

Used with LEDs for cheaper,

shorter distance links

Fibers in a cable

Physical Media

conncetors

Single-mode fiber

Carries light pulses

along single path

Uses Laser Light Source

Multimode fiber

Many pulses of light

generated by LED travel

at different angles

SC simplex

Connectors (most-common)

SC (simplex and duplex singlemode)

FC (simplex single and multimode) LC simplex and duplex

LC (simplex and duplex, single and multimode)

FDDI (duplex, mulitomode)

FC

FDDI

Fiber Attentuation

Fiber has enormous bandwidth (THz) and tiny signal

loss hence high rates over long distances

Comparison of the properties of wires and fiber:

Property

Wires

Fiber

Distance

Short (100s of m)

Bandwidth

Moderate

Very High

Cost

Inexpensive

Less cheap

Convenience

Easy to use

Less easy

Security

Easy to tap

Hard to tap

Unguided Transmission

Signals propagate freely through air

Terrestrial (wireless)

radiowaves,

microwaves,

infrared,

lasers

Satellites

Wireless Transmission

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Radio Transmission

Microwave Transmission

Light Transmission

Wireless vs. Wires/Fiber

Wireless

Sender radiates signal over a region

receivers

Nearby signals (same freq.) interfere at a receiver; need

to coordinate use

Wireless

Indoor: 10 50m: BlueTooth, WLAN

Short range Outdoor: 50 200m: WLAN

Mid Range Outdoor: 200m 5 Km: GSM, CDMA,

WLAN Point-to-Point, Wi-Max

Long Range Outdoor: 5 Km 100 Km: Microwave

Point-to-Point

Long Distance Communication: Across Continents:

Satellite Communication

Different bands have different uses:

Radio: wide-area broadcast; Infrared/Light: line-of-sight

Microwave (300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz): LANs and

3G/4G;

Networking focus

Microwave

To manage interference, spectrum is carefully divided,

and its use regulated and licensed, e.g., sold at auction.

300 MHz

3 GHz

3 GHz

30 GHz

Fortunately, there are also unlicensed (ISM) bands:

Free for use at low power; devices manage interference

Widely used for networking; WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc.

802.11

b/g/n

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

802.11a/g/n

Propagation methods

Frequency bands

Band

Range

Propagation

Application

VLF

330 KHz

Ground

LF

30300 KHz

Ground

navigational locators

MF

Sky

AM radio

HF

330 MHz

Sky

ship/aircraft communication

VHF

30300 MHz

Sky and

line-of-sight

VHF TV,

FM radio

UHF

Line-of-sight

paging, satellite

SHF

330 GHz

Line-of-sight

Satellite communication

EHF

30300 GHz

Line-of-sight

Radio Transmission

Radio signals penetrate buildings well and propagate for long

distances with path loss

In the VLF, LF, and MF bands, radio waves In the HF band, radio waves bounce off

follow the curvature of the earth

the ionosphere.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Microwave Transmission

Microwaves have much bandwidth and are widely used

indoors (WiFi) and outdoors (3G, satellites, long ditance

telephone systems)

Signal is attenuated/reflected by everyday objects

Strength varies with mobility due multipath fading, etc.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Light Transmission

Line-of-sight light (no fiber) can be used for links

Light is highly directional, has much bandwidth

Use of LEDs/cameras and lasers/photodetectors

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Wireless:

+

+

+

Naturally supports mobility

Naturally supports broadcast

Transmissions interfere and must be managed

Signal strengths hence data rates vary greatly

Wires/Fiber:

+ Easy to engineer a fixed data rate over point-to-point links

Can be expensive to deploy, esp. over distances

Doesnt readily support mobility or broadcast

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Communication Satellites

and anywhere/anytime communications

Kinds of Satellites

Geostationary (GEO) Satellites

Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites

Satellites vs. Fiber

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Kinds of Satellites

Satellites and their properties vary by altitude:

Geostationary (GEO), Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO),

and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO)

Sats needed for

global coverage

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Geostationary Satellites

GEO satellites orbit 35,000 km above a fixed location

VSAT (computers) can communicate with the help of a hub

Different bands (L, S, C, Ku, Ka) in the GHz are in use but may be

crowded or susceptible to rain.

GEO satellite

VSAT

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Band

DL

UL

BW

Problems

1.5 GHz

1.6

GHz

15 MHz

Low bandwidth;

crowded

1.9 GHz

2.2

GHz

70 MHz

Low bandwidth;

crowded

4.0 GHz

6.0

GHz

500 MHz

Terrestrial

interference

Ku

11 GHz

Ka

20 GHz

30 GHz

3500

MHz

Rain

Rain, equipment

cost

Systems such as Iridium use many low-latency satellites

for coverage and route communications via them

necklaces (11 satellites per

necklace) around the earth.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

LEO relaying

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Satellite:

+ Can rapidly set up anywhere/anytime communications (after

satellites have been launched)

+ Can broadcast to large regions

Limited bandwidth and interference to manage

Fiber:

+ Enormous bandwidth over long distances

Installation can be more expensive/difficult

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Signals

Fourier analysis

Bandwidth-limited signals

Maximum data rate of a channel

Signals

To be transmitted, data must be transformed to

electromagnetic signals.

continously varying voltage or current levels (period,

frequency, amplitude, phase); can have an infinite number

of values in a range

Digital signals constant voltage or current value for short

time and then changes to a different value; can have only

a limited number of values

Analog Signals

Sine Wave

Peak

amplitude

signals

Fourier Analysis

A time-varying signal can be equivalently represented as a

series of frequency components (harmonics):

=

Signal over time

a, b weights of harmonics

Bandwidth

Range of frequency components that can be satisfactorily

transmitted by the channel (medium)

Bandwidth-Limited Signals

Digital signal is a composite signal with an infinite bandwidth

Having less bandwidth (harmonics) degrades the signal

8 harmonics

Lost!

Bandwidth

4 harmonics

Lost!

2 harmonics

Lost!

Bit

Rate

Harmonic

1

Harmonics

1, 3

Harmonics

1, 3, 5

Harmonics

1, 3, 5, 7

1 Kbps

500 Hz

2 KHz

4.5 KHz

8 KHz

10 Kbps

5 KHz

20 KHz

45 KHz

80 KHz

100 Kbps

50 KHz

200 KHz

450 KHz

800 KHz

Nyquists theorem (~1924) relates the data rate to the

bandwidth (B) and number of signal levels (V):

The maximum symbol rate is 2B

Shannon's theorem (1948) relates the data rate to the

bandwidth (B) and signal strength (S) relative to the noise

(N):

How fast signal

can change

can be seen

Symbol (Baud) rate: fs Symbol duration time: Ts=1/fs

Digital systems with binary code: 1 Bd = 1 bit/s

Analog systems - continuous range of values to represent

information: 1 Bd 1 bit/s.

K bits per symbol: fs=R/K

V=2K different symbols in use

R= fs log2V bits/sec

can be reconstructed by sampling 2B times The maximum

symbol rate is 2B

fs/2B

=> Max. fs=2B

Example

A voice-grade link with cut.off frequency 3000Hz;

T=8/b [s] => frequency of the first harmonic f0 = b/8 [Hz].

Voice-grade link => number of the highest harmonic passed

through = 3000/(b/8) or 24,000/b

e.g. 9.6 kbps => f0 = 1200 Hz => harmonics=2

38.4 kbps => f0 = 4800 Hz => harmonics=0

Transmission Impairment

Attenuation

Noise

Delay

Distortion

Attenuation

1. The signal is attenuated (goes for m to km)

2. Frequencies above a cutoff are highly attenuated

Delay

The signal is delayed (propagates at c in wires)

propagation delay

Propagation delay: time for bits to propagate across the wire

P-delay = Length / speed of signals = Length / c = D

seconds

T-delay = M (bits) / Rate (bits/sec) = M/R seconds

Combining the two terms we have:

L = M/R + D

Noise

Noise is added to the signal (later, causes errors)

Shannon Capacity

How many levels we can distinguish depends on

S/N

Note noise is random, hence some errors

SNRdB = 10log10(S/N)

S+N

0

1

2

3

Distortion

Signal

strength

1/dist2

Distance

Multiple signals on the same frequency interfere at a receiver

Interference leads to notion of spatial reuse (of same freq.)

Multipath fading at microwave frequencies: Signals bounce

off objects and take multiple paths

Example (1)

1. A signal has four data levels with a pulse duration of 1

ms. We calculate the pulse rate and bit rate as follows:

Pulse Rate = 1/ 10-3= 1000 pulses/s

Bit Rate = PulseRate x log2 L = 1000 x log2 4 = 2000 bps

2. We have a channel with a 1 MHz bandwidth. The SNR for

this channel is 63; what is the appropriate bit rate and

signal level?

First, we use the Shannon formula to find our upper limit.

C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 106 log2 (1 + 63) = 106 log2 (64) = 6 Mbps

Then we use the Nyquist formula to find the number of signal

levels.

6 Mbps = 2 1 MHz log2 L L = 8

Example (2)

3. Determine the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (in dB) that

can be tolerated in order to reliably transmit a digital bit

stream at a rate of 1.544 Mbps over a 96 kHz band-limited

channel.

4. You race against the same channel carrying one full 8 GB

DVD. You drive your car at average speed of 60km/h. The

same amount of data is transmitted over the channel. The

last bit sent over the channel arrives to the destination

together with you. What is the length of the wire?

Modulation

Digital modulation

Baseband transmission

Passband transmission

Signal

10110

10110

Digital Modulation

Modulation schemes send bits as signals.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Baseband Transmission

Line codes send symbols that represent one or more bits

NRZ is the simplest, literal line code (+1V=1, -1V=0)

Other codes tradeoff bandwidth and signal transitions

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Bandwidth Efficiency

Strategies:

use more than two signaling levels - Multilevel Schemes

increase the number of data bits per symbol thereby

increasing the bit rate

2B1Q:

4B3T:

MLT-3:

Clock Recovery

To decode the symbols, signals need sufficient transitions

Otherwise long runs of 0s (or 1s) are confusing, e.g.:

1

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

0 um, 0? er, 0?

in the signal:

e.g. Coding 1 as a transition and 0 as no transitions:

NRZI (Non-Return-to-Zero Inverted)

Data

0000

0001

0010

0011

Code

11110

01001

10100

10101

Data

0100

0101

0110

0111

Code

01010

01011

01110

01111

Data

1000

1001

1010

1011

Code

10010

10011

10110

10111

Data

1100

1101

1110

1111

Code

11010

11011

11100

11101

DC component

Strategies:

Using 4B/5B to achieve balance (as well as transitions for clock

recovery) or 8B/10B

4B3T

1. We need to send data at a 1-Mbps rate. What is the

minimum required bandwidth, using a combination of 4B/5B

and NRZ-I or Manchester coding?

Solution:

First 4B/5B block coding increases the bit rate to 1.25 Mbps.

The minimum bandwidth using NRZ-I is N/2 or 625 kHz. The

Manchester scheme needs a minimum bandwidth of 1 MHz.

The first choice needs a lower bandwidth, but has a DC

component problem; the second choice needs a higher

bandwidth, but does not have a DC component problem.

Max data rate R=2B log2V [bits/sec]

V=2K different symbols in use => log2V=k

=> max.R=2Bk [bits/sec]

Symbol rate v [Baud/s] =R/k => k=R/v [bit/Baud]

=>max.v=2B => B=v/2

1o 4B/5B: k=1bit/(5/4Baud)=4/5 [bit/Baud]

R=1Mb/s => v=1Mbps/(4/5 bit/Baud)=1,25MBaud/s

NRZ-I: k=1bit/1Baud => v=R

=> B=v/2=1,25x106/2=625kHz

2o Manchester: k=1bit/2Baud=1/2 [bit/Baud]

R=1Mb/s => v=1Mbps/(1/2 bit/Baud)=2MBaud/s

=> B=v/2=2x106/2=1MHz

1. We need to send data at a 100 Mbps rate over a cable with a

50MHz bandwidth. Which of the following line coding

techniques we could use: Manchester coding, a combination

of 8B/10B and NRZ, and MLT-3 coding? Explain.

2. Draw line codes for 1010 0000 0000 1011 0000 1011 0000

NRZ

NRZ-L, NRZ-I

AMI, Pseudoternary, HDB3, B8ZS, CMI

Manchester and differential Manchester schemes

2B1Q, MLT-3

If the bit rate is 1Kbps, what are the baud rates for the

above line codes?

Passband Transmission

Modulating the amplitude, frequency/phase of a carrier

signal sends bits in a (non-zero) frequency range.

Carrier is simply a signal oscillating at a desired

frequency:

Amplitude shift keying

Frequency shift keying

Phase shift keying

ASK

bit rate=baud rate

1. Find the minimum bandwidth for an ASK signal transmitting

at 2000 bps. The transmission mode is half-duplex.

Solution

In ASK the baud rate and bit rate are the same. The baud rate is

therefore 2000. An ASK signal requires a minimum bandwidth

equal to its baud rate. Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is

2000 Hz.

2. Given a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz),

draw the full-duplex ASK diagram of the system. Find the

carriers and the bandwidths in each direction. Assume

there is no gap between the bands in the two directions.

Solution

For full-duplex ASK, the bandwidth for each direction is:

BW = 10000 / 2 = 5000 Hz

The carrier frequencies can be chosen at the middle of each

band: fc (forward) = 1000 + 5000/2 = 3500 Hz

fc (backward) = 11000 5000/2 = 8500 Hz

FSK

FSK examples

1. Find the minimum bandwidth for an FSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps.

Transmission is in half-duplex mode, and the carriers are separated by

3000 Hz.

Solution

For FSK:

BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0

BW = bit rate + fc1 - fc0 = 2000 + 3000 = 5000 Hz

2. Find the maximum bit rates for an FSK signal if the bandwidth of the

medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the two carriers is 2000

Hz. Transmission is in full-duplex mode.

Solution

Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is allocated for each

direction.

BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0

Baud rate = BW - (fc1 - fc0 ) = 6000 - 2000 = 4000

But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the bit rate is 4000

PSK

4-PSK, 8-PSK

4-PSK:

8-PSK:

PSK example

1. Find the bandwidth for a 4-PSK signal transmitting at

2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode.

Solution

For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, but in

4-PSK the bit rate is 2 times the baud rate, so the baud rate

is 4,000 bps. Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is 4000 Hz.

2. Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal, what

are the baud rate and bit rate?

Solution

For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which

means the baud rate is 5000. But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3

times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000 bps.

QPSK; QAM

Constellation diagrams are a shorthand to capture the

amplitude and phase modulations of symbols:

BPSK

2 symbols

1 bit/symbol

QPSK

4 symbols

2 bits/symbol

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

QAM-16

16 symbols

4 bits/symbol

QAM-64

64 symbols

6 bits/symbol

Gray-code

Gray-coding assigns bits to symbols so that small symbol

errors cause few bit errors:

B

E

A

D

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

comparison

Modulation

Units

Bits/Baud

Baud rate

Bit Rate

Bit

4-PSK, 4-QAM

Dibit

2N

8-PSK, 8-QAM

Tribit

3N

16-QAM

Quadbit

4N

32-QAM

Pentabit

5N

64-QAM

Hexabit

6N

128-QAM

Septabit

7N

256-QAM

Octabit

8N

Examples

1. A constellation diagram consists of eight equally spaced

points on a circle. If the bit rate is 4800 bps, what is the

baud rate?

Solution

The constellation indicates 8-PSK with the points 45 degrees

apart. Since 23 = 8, 3 bits are transmitted with each signal

unit. Therefore, the baud rate is

4800 / 3 = 1600 baud

2. Compute the baud rate for a 72,000-bps 64-QAM signal.

Solution

A 64-QAM signal has 6 bits per signal unit since: log2 64 = 6.

Thus, 72000 / 6 = 12,000 baud

1. A modem constellation diagram has data points at the

following coordinates: (1, 1), (1, -1), (-1, 1), (-1, -1), (2, 1),

(2, -1), (-2, 1), and (-2, -1). How many bps can a modem

with these parameters achieve at 1200 symbols/second?

What kind of modulations this modem does use?

Multiplexing

Multiplexing schemes share a channel among users.

Time Division Multiplexing

Code Division Multiple Access

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

channel by placing users on different frequencies

Can be applied when the BW of a link is greater than

the combined BWs of the signals to be transmitted

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

FDM process

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Example (1)

1. Five channels, each with a 100-KHz bandwidth, are to be

FDM multiplexed together. What is the minimum

bandwidth of the link if there is a need for a guard band of

10 KHz between the channels to prevent interference?

Solution

For five channels, we need at least four guard bands. This

means that the required bandwidth is at least:

5 x 100 + 4 x 10 = 540 KHz

Example (2)

2. Four data channels (digital), each transmitting at 1 Mbps,

use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. Design an appropriate

configuration using FDM

Solution

The satellite channel is analog. We divide it into four

channels, each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. Each

digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits

are modulated to 1 Hz. One solution is 16-QAM modulation.

Figure 6.8 shows one possible configuration.

OFDM

OFDM (Orthogonal FDM) is an efficient FDM technique

used for 802.11, 4G cellular and other communications

Subcarriers are coordinated to be tightly packed

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Time division multiplexing shares a channel over time:

Instead of sharing a portion of the bandwidth as in

FDM, time is shared

Users take turns on a fixed schedule; this is not packet

switching or STDM (Statistical TDM)

Widely used in telephone / cellular systems

the unit duration is n times shorter

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Example (1)

1. Four 1-Kbps connections are TDM multiplexed together. A

unit is 1 bit. Find (1) the duration of 1 bit before

multiplexing, (2) the transmission rate of the link, (3) the

duration of a time slot, and (4) the duration of a frame?

Solution

1. The duration of 1 bit is 1/1 Kbps, or 0.001 s (1 ms).

2. The rate of the link is 4 Kbps.

3. The duration of each time slot 1/4 ms or 250 ms.

4. The duration of a frame 1 ms.

Example (2)

2. A multiplexer combines four 100-Kbps channels using a

time slot of 2 bits. Show the output with four arbitrary

inputs. What is the frame rate? What is the frame

duration? What is the bit rate? What is the bit duration?

Solution

Figure shows the output for four arbitrary inputs.

CDMA shares the channel by giving users a code

Codes are orthogonal; can be sent at the same time

Widely used as part of 3G networks

Sender Codes

A=

Transmitted

Signal

+1

+1

-1

-1

+2

B=

+1 +1

-1 -1

Receiver Decoding

S x A +2+2

0

SxB

-2 -2

Sum = 4

A sent 1

Sum = -4

B sent 0

-2

C=

+1

+1

-1 -1

S = +A -B

S x C +2

0

0

-2

Sum = 0

C didnt send

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Signals the sequences represent

Six examples of transmissions

Recovery of station C's signal.

Example (1)

1. Below are shown the binary chip sequences assigned to

four example stations in binary and bipolar notation:

A: (-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1); B: (-1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1);

C: (-1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 +1); D: (-1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1)

Station A wants to send binary 1, station B binary 0, station C

wants to stay silent and station D wants to send binary 1. Show

the resultant chip sequence in bipolar notation.

Solution

A sends: (-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1); B sends (+1 -1 +1 -1 -1 -1 +1

+1); C sends (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0); D sends (-1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1).

The resulting sequence is S=A+B+C+D= (-1 -1 +1 -3 -1 -1 +3

-1).

Example (2)

2. If the CDMA receiver gets the following chips: (-1 +3 -1 -1 -1

+1 -1 -3) which stations of the above four transmitted and

which bits did each one send?

Solution

SA/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1)/8 =

(+1 -3 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +3)/8=0

SB/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1)/8 =

(+1 +3 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +3)/8=1

SC/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 +1)/8 =

(+1 -3 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -3)/8=-1

SD/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1)/8 =

(+1 +3 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +3)/8=1

B and D sent 1 bits, C sent a 0 bit, and A was silent.

Politics of telephones

Local loop: modems, ADSL, and FTTH

Trunks and multiplexing

Switching

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

A hierarchical system for carrying voice calls made of:

Local loops, mostly analog twisted pairs to houses

Trunks, digital fiber optic links that carry calls

Switching offices, that move calls among trunks

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

In the U.S., there is a distinction for competition between

serving a local area (LECs) and connecting to a local area

(at a POP) to switch calls across areas (IXCs)

Customers of a LEC can dial via any IXC they choose

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Telephone modems send digital data over an 3.3 KHz

analog voice channel interface to the POTS

Rates <56 kbps; early way to connect to the Internet

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

DSL broadband sends data over the local loop to the local

office using frequencies that are not used for POTS

Telephone/computers

attach to the same old

phone line

Rates vary with line

ADSL2 up to 12 Mbps

OFDM is used up to

1.1 MHz for ADSL2

Most bandwidth down

QAM modulation

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

FTTH broadband relies on deployment of fiber optic cables

to provide high data rates to customers

One wavelength can be shared among many houses

Fiber is passive (no amplifiers, etc.)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Digitizing Voice Signals

PCM (Pulse Code Modulation):

Analog signals are digitized in the end office by a

device called a codec (coder-decoder)

8000 samples per second (125 sec/sample)

Nyquist sufficient for 4-kHz telephone channel

bandwidth

Each sample of the amplitude quantized to an 8-bit

number

The standard uncompressed data rate for a voice-grade

telephone call is thus 8 bits every 125 sec, or 64 kbps.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Calls are carried digitally on PSTN trunks using TDM

A call is an 8-bit PCM sample each 125 s (64 kbps)

Traditional T1 carrier has 24 call channels each 125 s

(1.544 Mbps) with symbols based on AMI

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

T Line

Rate

(Mbps)

Voice

Channels

E Line

Rate

(Mbps)

Voice

Channels

T-1

1.544

24

E-1

2.048

30

T-2

6.312

96

E-2

8.448

120

T-3

44.736

672

E-3

34.368

480

T-4

274.176

4032

E-4

139.264

1920

SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork) is the worldwide

standard for carrying digital signals on optical trunks

Keeps 125 s frame; base frame is 810 bytes (52Mbps)

Payload floats within framing for flexibility

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Hierarchy at 3:1 per level is used for higher rates

Each level also adds a small amount of framing

Rates from 50 Mbps (STS-1) to 40 Gbps (STS-768)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing), another name for

FDM, is used to carry many signals on one fiber:

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Switching (1)

PSTN uses circuit switching; Internet uses packet switching

PSTN:

Internet:

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Switching (2)

Circuit switching requires

call setup (connection)

before data flows smoothly

Also teardown at end

(not shown)

Packet switching treats

messages independently

No setup, but variable

queuing delay at routers

Circuits

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Packets

Switching (3)

Comparison of circuit- and packet-switched networks

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Problems

1. A simple telephone system consists of two end offices and a

single toll office to which each end office is connected by a

1-MHz full-duplex trunk. The average telephone is used to

make four calls per 8-hour workday. The mean call duration

is 6 min. Ten percent of the calls are long distance (i.e., pass

through the toll office). What is the maximum number of

telephones an end office can support? (Assume 4 kHz per

circuit.) Explain why a telephone company may decide to

support a lesser number of telephones than this maximum

number at the end office.

Problems

Cellular mobile telephone systems

GSM, a 2G system

UMTS, a 3G system

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

1G, analog voice

AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) is example, deployed

from 1980s. Modulation based on FM (as in radio).

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is example,

deployed from 1990s. Modulation based on QPSK.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is

example, deployed from 2000s. Modulation based on CDMA

LTE (Long Term Evolution) is example, deployed from 2010s.

Modulation based on OFDM

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

All based on notion of spatial regions called cells

Each mobile uses a frequency in a cell; moves cause handoff

Frequencies are reused across non-adjacent cells

To support more mobiles, smaller cells can be used

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Communications (1)

Identity Module) with credentials

Mobiles tell their HLR (Home Location Register) their current

whereabouts for incoming calls

Cells keep track of visiting mobiles (in the Visitor LR)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Communications (2)

Air interface is based on FDM channels of 200 KHz

divided in an eight-slot TDM frame every 4.615 ms

Mobile is assigned up- and down-stream slots to use

Each slot is 148 bits long, gives rate of 27.4 kbps

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Telecommunications System (1)

Architecture is an evolution of GSM; terminology differs

Packets goes to/from the Internet via SGSN/GGSN

Internet

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Telecommunications System (2)

Air interface based on CDMA over 5 MHz channels

Rates over users <14.4 Mbps (HSPDA) per 5 MHz

CDMA allows frequency reuse over all cells

CDMA permits soft handoff (connected to both cells)

Soft

handoff

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Cable Television

Spectrum allocation

Cable modems

ADSL vs. cable

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Internet over cable reuses the cable television plant

Data is sent on the shared cable tree from the headend, not on a dedicated line per subscriber (DSL)

ISP

(Internet)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Spectrum Allocation

Upstream and downstream data are allocated to

frequency channels not used for TV channels:

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Cable Modems

Cable modems at customer premises implement the

physical layer of the DOCSIS standard

QPSK/QAM is used in timeslots on frequencies that

are assigned for upstream/downstream data

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Cable:

+ Uses coaxial cable to

customers (good bandwidth)

Data is broadcast to all

customers (less secure)

Bandwidth is shared over

customers so may vary

ADSL:

+ Bandwidth is dedicated for

each customer

+ Point-to-point link does not

broadcast data

Uses twisted pair to

customers (lower bandwidth)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

End

Chapter 2

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

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