You are on page 1of 133

The Physical Layer

Properties of media
Wires, fiber optics, wireless

Simple signal propagation


Bandwidth, attenuation, noise

Modulation schemes and multiplexing


Representing bits, noise

Fundamental limits
Nyquist, Shannon

Satellite Communication
Public Switched Telephone Network
Mobile Telephone System
Cable Television

The Physical Layer

The Physical Layer


Foundation on which other layers build
Properties of wires, fiber, wireless limit what the network
can do
Concerns how signals are used to transfer message bits
over a link
Wires etc. carry analog signals
We want to send digital bits
10110

Signal

10110

Transmission medium
Media propagate signals that carry bits of information
Media have different properties, hence performance
Reality check (Storage media)
Send data on tape / disk / DVD for a high bandwidth link
Mail one box with 1000 800GB tapes (6400 Tbit)
Takes one day to send (86,400 secs)
Data rate is 70 Gbps.
Data rate is faster than long-distance networks!
But, the message delay is very poor.

Transmission medium

Link Terminology
Full-duplex link
Used for transmission in both directions at once
e.g., use different twisted pairs for each direction
Half-duplex link
Both directions, but not at the same time
e.g., senders take turns on a wireless channel
Simplex link
Only one fixed direction at all times; not common

Guided Transmission
Signals propagate in solid media: copper, fiber
Wires:
Twisted pairs
Coaxial cable
Power lines

Fiber cables

Wires Twisted Pair


Very common; used in LANs and telephone lines
Twists reduce radiated signal (interference)

UTP

STP

Physical Media

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Consists of 4 pairs (8 wires) of


insulated copper wires typically about
1 mm thick
The wires are twisted together in a
helical form
High bandwidth and High attenuation
channel
Flexible and cheap cable
Category rating based on number of
twists, the diameter and the material
used:
CAT 3, CAT 4, CAT 5, CAT5e, CAT 6
and CAT 6a
CAT 5e and CAT 6 are currently the
most common Ethernet cables used.

Wires Coaxial Cable (Co-ax)


Also common. Better shielding and more bandwidth for
longer distances and higher rates than twisted pair.

BNC connector

Category

Impedance

Use

RG-59

75

Cable TV

RG-58

50

Thin Ethernet

RG-11

50

Thick Ethernet

Wires Power Lines


Household electrical wiring is another example of wires
Convenient to use, but horrible for sending data

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Fiber Cables
Common for high rates and long distances
Long distance ISP links, Fiber-to-the-Home
Light carried in very long, thin strand of glass

Light source
(LED, laser)

Light trapped by
total internal reflection

low error rate:


repeaters spaced far apart
immune to electromagnetic noise

Photodetector

Total Internal Reflection

Single and Multimode Fiber (1)


Single-mode
Core so narrow (10um) light
cant even bounce around
Used with lasers for long
distances, e.g., 100km
Multi-mode
Other main type of fiber
Light can bounce (50um core)
Used with LEDs for cheaper,
shorter distance links
Fibers in a cable

Physical Media

Single and Multimode Fibers and


conncetors
Single-mode fiber
Carries light pulses
along single path
Uses Laser Light Source
Multimode fiber
Many pulses of light
generated by LED travel
at different angles
SC simplex

Connectors (most-common)
SC (simplex and duplex singlemode)
FC (simplex single and multimode) LC simplex and duplex
LC (simplex and duplex, single and multimode)
FDDI (duplex, mulitomode)

FC

FDDI

Fiber Attentuation
Fiber has enormous bandwidth (THz) and tiny signal
loss hence high rates over long distances

Fiber Cables vs. Wires


Comparison of the properties of wires and fiber:
Property

Wires

Fiber

Distance

Short (100s of m)

Long (tens of km)

Bandwidth

Moderate

Very High

Cost

Inexpensive

Less cheap

Convenience

Easy to use

Less easy

Security

Easy to tap

Hard to tap

Unguided Transmission
Signals propagate freely through air
Terrestrial (wireless)

radiowaves,
microwaves,
infrared,
lasers

Satellites

Wireless Transmission

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Radio Transmission
Microwave Transmission
Light Transmission
Wireless vs. Wires/Fiber

Wireless
Sender radiates signal over a region

In many directions, unlike a wire, to potentially many


receivers
Nearby signals (same freq.) interfere at a receiver; need
to coordinate use

Wireless
Indoor: 10 50m: BlueTooth, WLAN
Short range Outdoor: 50 200m: WLAN
Mid Range Outdoor: 200m 5 Km: GSM, CDMA,
WLAN Point-to-Point, Wi-Max
Long Range Outdoor: 5 Km 100 Km: Microwave
Point-to-Point
Long Distance Communication: Across Continents:
Satellite Communication

Electromagnetic Spectrum (1)


Different bands have different uses:
Radio: wide-area broadcast; Infrared/Light: line-of-sight
Microwave (300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz): LANs and
3G/4G;
Networking focus
Microwave

Electromagnetic Spectrum (2)


To manage interference, spectrum is carefully divided,
and its use regulated and licensed, e.g., sold at auction.
300 MHz

3 GHz

WiFi (ISM bands)


3 GHz

Source: NTIA Office of Spectrum Management, 2003

Part of the US frequency allocations

30 GHz

Electromagnetic Spectrum (3)


Fortunately, there are also unlicensed (ISM) bands:
Free for use at low power; devices manage interference
Widely used for networking; WiFi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc.

802.11
b/g/n

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

802.11a/g/n

Propagation methods

Frequency bands
Band

Range

Propagation

Application

VLF

330 KHz

Ground

Long-range radio navigation

LF

30300 KHz

Ground

Radio beacons and


navigational locators

MF

300 KHz3 MHz

Sky

AM radio

HF

330 MHz

Sky

Citizens band (CB),


ship/aircraft communication

VHF

30300 MHz

Sky and
line-of-sight

VHF TV,
FM radio

UHF

300 MHz3 GHz

Line-of-sight

UHF TV, cellular phones,


paging, satellite

SHF

330 GHz

Line-of-sight

Satellite communication

EHF

30300 GHz

Line-of-sight

Long-range radio navigation

Radio Transmission
Radio signals penetrate buildings well and propagate for long
distances with path loss

In the VLF, LF, and MF bands, radio waves In the HF band, radio waves bounce off
follow the curvature of the earth
the ionosphere.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Microwave Transmission
Microwaves have much bandwidth and are widely used
indoors (WiFi) and outdoors (3G, satellites, long ditance
telephone systems)
Signal is attenuated/reflected by everyday objects
Strength varies with mobility due multipath fading, etc.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Light Transmission
Line-of-sight light (no fiber) can be used for links
Light is highly directional, has much bandwidth
Use of LEDs/cameras and lasers/photodetectors

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Wireless vs. Wires/Fiber


Wireless:
+
+
+

Easy and inexpensive to deploy


Naturally supports mobility
Naturally supports broadcast
Transmissions interfere and must be managed
Signal strengths hence data rates vary greatly

Wires/Fiber:
+ Easy to engineer a fixed data rate over point-to-point links
Can be expensive to deploy, esp. over distances
Doesnt readily support mobility or broadcast

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Communication Satellites

Satellites are effective for broadcast distribution


and anywhere/anytime communications
Kinds of Satellites
Geostationary (GEO) Satellites
Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites
Satellites vs. Fiber

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Kinds of Satellites
Satellites and their properties vary by altitude:
Geostationary (GEO), Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO),
and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO)
Sats needed for
global coverage

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Geostationary Satellites
GEO satellites orbit 35,000 km above a fixed location
VSAT (computers) can communicate with the help of a hub
Different bands (L, S, C, Ku, Ka) in the GHz are in use but may be
crowded or susceptible to rain.

GEO satellite

VSAT

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Band

DL

UL

BW

Problems

1.5 GHz

1.6
GHz

15 MHz

Low bandwidth;
crowded

1.9 GHz

2.2
GHz

70 MHz

Low bandwidth;
crowded

4.0 GHz

6.0
GHz

500 MHz

Terrestrial
interference

Ku

11 GHz

14 GHz 500 MHz

Ka

20 GHz

30 GHz

3500
MHz

Rain
Rain, equipment
cost

Low-Earth Orbit Satellites


Systems such as Iridium use many low-latency satellites
for coverage and route communications via them

The Iridium satellites form six


necklaces (11 satellites per
necklace) around the earth.
CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

LEO relaying

(a) Relaying in space. (b) Relaying on the ground.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Satellite vs. Fiber


Satellite:
+ Can rapidly set up anywhere/anytime communications (after
satellites have been launched)
+ Can broadcast to large regions
Limited bandwidth and interference to manage

Fiber:
+ Enormous bandwidth over long distances
Installation can be more expensive/difficult

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Theoretical Basis for Data Communication

Communication rates have fundamental limits

Signals
Fourier analysis
Bandwidth-limited signals
Maximum data rate of a channel

Signals
To be transmitted, data must be transformed to
electromagnetic signals.

Analog signals continuous-time signal formed by


continously varying voltage or current levels (period,
frequency, amplitude, phase); can have an infinite number
of values in a range
Digital signals constant voltage or current value for short
time and then changes to a different value; can have only
a limited number of values

Analog Signals
Sine Wave

Peak
amplitude

Frequency and period are inverses of each other T=1/f

Sine wave examples (1)

Sine wave examples (2)

Time and frequency domain of analog


signals

Fourier Analysis
A time-varying signal can be equivalently represented as a
series of frequency components (harmonics):

=
Signal over time

a, b weights of harmonics

Bandwidth
Range of frequency components that can be satisfactorily
transmitted by the channel (medium)

Bandwidth-Limited Signals
Digital signal is a composite signal with an infinite bandwidth
Having less bandwidth (harmonics) degrades the signal
8 harmonics
Lost!
Bandwidth
4 harmonics
Lost!

2 harmonics
Lost!

Bit rate and bit interval

Digital versus analog

Digital signals - Bandwidth Requirements


Bit
Rate

Harmonic
1

Harmonics
1, 3

Harmonics
1, 3, 5

Harmonics
1, 3, 5, 7

1 Kbps

500 Hz

2 KHz

4.5 KHz

8 KHz

10 Kbps

5 KHz

20 KHz

45 KHz

80 KHz

100 Kbps

50 KHz

200 KHz

450 KHz

800 KHz

Analog vs. Digital

Digital transmission needs a low-pass channel

Analog transmission can use a band-pass channel

Maximum Data Rate of a Channel


Nyquists theorem (~1924) relates the data rate to the
bandwidth (B) and number of signal levels (V):

Max. data rate = 2B log2V bits/sec


The maximum symbol rate is 2B
Shannon's theorem (1948) relates the data rate to the
bandwidth (B) and signal strength (S) relative to the noise
(N):

Max. data rate = B log2(1 + S/N) bits/sec


How fast signal
can change

How many levels


can be seen

Baud Rate vs. Data Rate


Symbol (Baud) rate: fs Symbol duration time: Ts=1/fs
Digital systems with binary code: 1 Bd = 1 bit/s
Analog systems - continuous range of values to represent
information: 1 Bd 1 bit/s.
K bits per symbol: fs=R/K
V=2K different symbols in use

R= fs log2V bits/sec

Nyquist: If B-maximum freq. medium can transmit, then signal


can be reconstructed by sampling 2B times The maximum
symbol rate is 2B
fs/2B
=> Max. fs=2B

Max.R=2B log2V bits/sec

Example
A voice-grade link with cut.off frequency 3000Hz;

Baud rate b [Baud/s] and 1bit/Baud => Time to transmit 8 bits:


T=8/b [s] => frequency of the first harmonic f0 = b/8 [Hz].
Voice-grade link => number of the highest harmonic passed
through = 3000/(b/8) or 24,000/b
e.g. 9.6 kbps => f0 = 1200 Hz => harmonics=2
38.4 kbps => f0 = 4800 Hz => harmonics=0

Transmission Impairment

Attenuation

Noise

Delay

Distortion

Signals over Wireless

Attenuation
1. The signal is attenuated (goes for m to km)
2. Frequencies above a cutoff are highly attenuated

Delay
The signal is delayed (propagates at c in wires)
propagation delay
Propagation delay: time for bits to propagate across the wire
P-delay = Length / speed of signals = Length / c = D
seconds

Transmission delay: time to put M-bit message on the wire


T-delay = M (bits) / Rate (bits/sec) = M/R seconds

Latency is the delay to send a message over a link:


Combining the two terms we have:

L = M/R + D

Noise
Noise is added to the signal (later, causes errors)

Shannon Capacity
How many levels we can distinguish depends on
S/N

Or SNR, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio


Note noise is random, hence some errors

SNR given on a log-scale in deciBels:

SNRdB = 10log10(S/N)

S+N
0
1
2
3

Distortion

Signals over Wireless


Signal
strength
1/dist2

Distance

Signal attenuates faster than 1/dist2.


Multiple signals on the same frequency interfere at a receiver
Interference leads to notion of spatial reuse (of same freq.)
Multipath fading at microwave frequencies: Signals bounce
off objects and take multiple paths

Example (1)
1. A signal has four data levels with a pulse duration of 1
ms. We calculate the pulse rate and bit rate as follows:
Pulse Rate = 1/ 10-3= 1000 pulses/s
Bit Rate = PulseRate x log2 L = 1000 x log2 4 = 2000 bps
2. We have a channel with a 1 MHz bandwidth. The SNR for
this channel is 63; what is the appropriate bit rate and
signal level?
First, we use the Shannon formula to find our upper limit.
C = B log2 (1 + SNR) = 106 log2 (1 + 63) = 106 log2 (64) = 6 Mbps
Then we use the Nyquist formula to find the number of signal
levels.
6 Mbps = 2 1 MHz log2 L L = 8

Example (2)
3. Determine the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (in dB) that
can be tolerated in order to reliably transmit a digital bit
stream at a rate of 1.544 Mbps over a 96 kHz band-limited
channel.
4. You race against the same channel carrying one full 8 GB
DVD. You drive your car at average speed of 60km/h. The
same amount of data is transmitted over the channel. The
last bit sent over the channel arrives to the destination
together with you. What is the length of the wire?

Modulation

Digital modulation

Baseband transmission

Passband transmission
Signal
10110

10110

Digital Modulation
Modulation schemes send bits as signals.

Line coding - Baseband Transmission/Modulation

Shift Keying - Passband Transmission

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Baseband Transmission
Line codes send symbols that represent one or more bits
NRZ is the simplest, literal line code (+1V=1, -1V=0)
Other codes tradeoff bandwidth and signal transitions

Four different line codes


CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Bandwidth Efficiency
Strategies:
use more than two signaling levels - Multilevel Schemes
increase the number of data bits per symbol thereby
increasing the bit rate
2B1Q:
4B3T:

MLT-3:

Clock Recovery
To decode the symbols, signals need sufficient transitions
Otherwise long runs of 0s (or 1s) are confusing, e.g.:
1

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

0 um, 0? er, 0?

Strategies for clock recovery (1)

Manchester coding, mixes clock signal in every symbol

Differential Manchester coding

Strategies for clock recovery (2)

Code the data to ensure that there are enough transitions


in the signal:
e.g. Coding 1 as a transition and 0 as no transitions:
NRZI (Non-Return-to-Zero Inverted)

4B/5B maps 4 data bits to 5 coded bits with 1s and 0s:


Data
0000
0001
0010
0011

Code
11110
01001
10100
10101

Data
0100
0101
0110
0111

Code
01010
01011
01110
01111

Data
1000
1001
1010
1011

Code
10010
10011
10110
10111

Data
1100
1101
1110
1111

Code
11010
11011
11100
11101

Scrambler XORs tx/rx data with pseudorandom bits

DC component

Strategies:

Bipolar coding: bipolar NRZ, Manchester, AMI


Using 4B/5B to achieve balance (as well as transitions for clock
recovery) or 8B/10B
4B3T

Line coding example


1. We need to send data at a 1-Mbps rate. What is the
minimum required bandwidth, using a combination of 4B/5B
and NRZ-I or Manchester coding?
Solution:
First 4B/5B block coding increases the bit rate to 1.25 Mbps.
The minimum bandwidth using NRZ-I is N/2 or 625 kHz. The
Manchester scheme needs a minimum bandwidth of 1 MHz.
The first choice needs a lower bandwidth, but has a DC
component problem; the second choice needs a higher
bandwidth, but does not have a DC component problem.

Line coding example calculation


Max data rate R=2B log2V [bits/sec]
V=2K different symbols in use => log2V=k
=> max.R=2Bk [bits/sec]
Symbol rate v [Baud/s] =R/k => k=R/v [bit/Baud]
=>max.v=2B => B=v/2
1o 4B/5B: k=1bit/(5/4Baud)=4/5 [bit/Baud]
R=1Mb/s => v=1Mbps/(4/5 bit/Baud)=1,25MBaud/s
NRZ-I: k=1bit/1Baud => v=R
=> B=v/2=1,25x106/2=625kHz
2o Manchester: k=1bit/2Baud=1/2 [bit/Baud]
R=1Mb/s => v=1Mbps/(1/2 bit/Baud)=2MBaud/s
=> B=v/2=2x106/2=1MHz

Problems for individual work


1. We need to send data at a 100 Mbps rate over a cable with a
50MHz bandwidth. Which of the following line coding
techniques we could use: Manchester coding, a combination
of 8B/10B and NRZ, and MLT-3 coding? Explain.
2. Draw line codes for 1010 0000 0000 1011 0000 1011 0000
NRZ
NRZ-L, NRZ-I
AMI, Pseudoternary, HDB3, B8ZS, CMI
Manchester and differential Manchester schemes
2B1Q, MLT-3
If the bit rate is 1Kbps, what are the baud rates for the
above line codes?

Passband Transmission
Modulating the amplitude, frequency/phase of a carrier
signal sends bits in a (non-zero) frequency range.
Carrier is simply a signal oscillating at a desired
frequency:

NRZ signal of bits


Amplitude shift keying
Frequency shift keying
Phase shift keying

ASK
bit rate=baud rate

ASK example (1)


1. Find the minimum bandwidth for an ASK signal transmitting
at 2000 bps. The transmission mode is half-duplex.

Solution
In ASK the baud rate and bit rate are the same. The baud rate is
therefore 2000. An ASK signal requires a minimum bandwidth
equal to its baud rate. Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is
2000 Hz.

ASK example (2)


2. Given a bandwidth of 10,000 Hz (1000 to 11,000 Hz),
draw the full-duplex ASK diagram of the system. Find the
carriers and the bandwidths in each direction. Assume
there is no gap between the bands in the two directions.

Solution
For full-duplex ASK, the bandwidth for each direction is:
BW = 10000 / 2 = 5000 Hz
The carrier frequencies can be chosen at the middle of each
band: fc (forward) = 1000 + 5000/2 = 3500 Hz
fc (backward) = 11000 5000/2 = 8500 Hz

FSK

FSK examples
1. Find the minimum bandwidth for an FSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps.
Transmission is in half-duplex mode, and the carriers are separated by
3000 Hz.

Solution
For FSK:
BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0
BW = bit rate + fc1 - fc0 = 2000 + 3000 = 5000 Hz
2. Find the maximum bit rates for an FSK signal if the bandwidth of the
medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the two carriers is 2000
Hz. Transmission is in full-duplex mode.

Solution
Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is allocated for each
direction.
BW = baud rate + fc1 - fc0
Baud rate = BW - (fc1 - fc0 ) = 6000 - 2000 = 4000
But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the bit rate is 4000

PSK

4-PSK, 8-PSK

4-PSK:

8-PSK:

PSK example
1. Find the bandwidth for a 4-PSK signal transmitting at
2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode.

Solution
For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, but in
4-PSK the bit rate is 2 times the baud rate, so the baud rate
is 4,000 bps. Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is 4000 Hz.
2. Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal, what
are the baud rate and bit rate?

Solution
For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which
means the baud rate is 5000. But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3
times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000 bps.

QPSK; QAM
Constellation diagrams are a shorthand to capture the
amplitude and phase modulations of symbols:

BPSK
2 symbols
1 bit/symbol

QPSK
4 symbols
2 bits/symbol

BPSK/QPSK varies only phase

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

QAM-16
16 symbols
4 bits/symbol

QAM-64
64 symbols
6 bits/symbol

QAM varies amplitude and phase

Gray-code
Gray-coding assigns bits to symbols so that small symbol
errors cause few bit errors:

B
E

A
D

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Passband trasmission: Bit and baud rate


comparison
Modulation

Units

Bits/Baud

Baud rate

Bit Rate

Bit

4-PSK, 4-QAM

Dibit

2N

8-PSK, 8-QAM

Tribit

3N

16-QAM

Quadbit

4N

32-QAM

Pentabit

5N

64-QAM

Hexabit

6N

128-QAM

Septabit

7N

256-QAM

Octabit

8N

ASK, FSK, 2-PSK

Examples
1. A constellation diagram consists of eight equally spaced
points on a circle. If the bit rate is 4800 bps, what is the
baud rate?

Solution
The constellation indicates 8-PSK with the points 45 degrees
apart. Since 23 = 8, 3 bits are transmitted with each signal
unit. Therefore, the baud rate is
4800 / 3 = 1600 baud
2. Compute the baud rate for a 72,000-bps 64-QAM signal.

Solution
A 64-QAM signal has 6 bits per signal unit since: log2 64 = 6.
Thus, 72000 / 6 = 12,000 baud

Problems for individual work


1. A modem constellation diagram has data points at the
following coordinates: (1, 1), (1, -1), (-1, 1), (-1, -1), (2, 1),
(2, -1), (-2, 1), and (-2, -1). How many bps can a modem
with these parameters achieve at 1200 symbols/second?
What kind of modulations this modem does use?

Multiplexing
Multiplexing schemes share a channel among users.

Frequency Division Multiplexing


Time Division Multiplexing
Code Division Multiple Access

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Frequency Division Multiplexing (1)

FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) shares the


channel by placing users on different frequencies
Can be applied when the BW of a link is greater than
the combined BWs of the signals to be transmitted

Overall FDM channel


CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

FDM process

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Example (1)
1. Five channels, each with a 100-KHz bandwidth, are to be
FDM multiplexed together. What is the minimum
bandwidth of the link if there is a need for a guard band of
10 KHz between the channels to prevent interference?

Solution
For five channels, we need at least four guard bands. This
means that the required bandwidth is at least:
5 x 100 + 4 x 10 = 540 KHz

Example (2)
2. Four data channels (digital), each transmitting at 1 Mbps,
use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. Design an appropriate
configuration using FDM

Solution
The satellite channel is analog. We divide it into four
channels, each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. Each
digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits
are modulated to 1 Hz. One solution is 16-QAM modulation.
Figure 6.8 shows one possible configuration.

OFDM
OFDM (Orthogonal FDM) is an efficient FDM technique
used for 802.11, 4G cellular and other communications
Subcarriers are coordinated to be tightly packed

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


Time division multiplexing shares a channel over time:
Instead of sharing a portion of the bandwidth as in
FDM, time is shared
Users take turns on a fixed schedule; this is not packet
switching or STDM (Statistical TDM)
Widely used in telephone / cellular systems

In a TDM, the data rate of the link is n times faster, and


the unit duration is n times shorter
CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Example (1)
1. Four 1-Kbps connections are TDM multiplexed together. A
unit is 1 bit. Find (1) the duration of 1 bit before
multiplexing, (2) the transmission rate of the link, (3) the
duration of a time slot, and (4) the duration of a frame?

Solution
1. The duration of 1 bit is 1/1 Kbps, or 0.001 s (1 ms).
2. The rate of the link is 4 Kbps.
3. The duration of each time slot 1/4 ms or 250 ms.
4. The duration of a frame 1 ms.

Example (2)
2. A multiplexer combines four 100-Kbps channels using a
time slot of 2 bits. Show the output with four arbitrary
inputs. What is the frame rate? What is the frame
duration? What is the bit rate? What is the bit duration?

Solution
Figure shows the output for four arbitrary inputs.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)


CDMA shares the channel by giving users a code
Codes are orthogonal; can be sent at the same time
Widely used as part of 3G networks
Sender Codes
A=

Transmitted
Signal

+1

+1
-1

-1
+2

B=

+1 +1
-1 -1

Receiver Decoding
S x A +2+2
0

SxB

-2 -2

Sum = 4
A sent 1
Sum = -4
B sent 0

-2

C=

+1

+1
-1 -1

S = +A -B

S x C +2
0

0
-2

Sum = 0
C didnt send

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Chip sequences for four stations


Signals the sequences represent
Six examples of transmissions
Recovery of station C's signal.

CDMA multiplexer and demultiplexer

Example (1)
1. Below are shown the binary chip sequences assigned to
four example stations in binary and bipolar notation:
A: (-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1); B: (-1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1);
C: (-1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 +1); D: (-1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1)
Station A wants to send binary 1, station B binary 0, station C
wants to stay silent and station D wants to send binary 1. Show
the resultant chip sequence in bipolar notation.

Solution
A sends: (-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1); B sends (+1 -1 +1 -1 -1 -1 +1
+1); C sends (0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0); D sends (-1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1).
The resulting sequence is S=A+B+C+D= (-1 -1 +1 -3 -1 -1 +3
-1).

Example (2)
2. If the CDMA receiver gets the following chips: (-1 +3 -1 -1 -1
+1 -1 -3) which stations of the above four transmitted and
which bits did each one send?

Solution
SA/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 -1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1)/8 =
(+1 -3 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +3)/8=0
SB/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 +1 -1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1)/8 =
(+1 +3 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +3)/8=1
SC/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 +1)/8 =
(+1 -3 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -3)/8=-1
SD/8=(-1 +3 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 -3) (-1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1)/8 =
(+1 +3 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +3)/8=1
B and D sent 1 bits, C sent a 0 bit, and A was silent.

The Public Switched Telephone Network

Structure of the telephone system


Politics of telephones
Local loop: modems, ADSL, and FTTH
Trunks and multiplexing
Switching

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Structure of the Telephone System


A hierarchical system for carrying voice calls made of:
Local loops, mostly analog twisted pairs to houses
Trunks, digital fiber optic links that carry calls
Switching offices, that move calls among trunks

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

The Politics of Telephones


In the U.S., there is a distinction for competition between
serving a local area (LECs) and connecting to a local area
(at a POP) to switch calls across areas (IXCs)
Customers of a LEC can dial via any IXC they choose

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Local loop (1): modems


Telephone modems send digital data over an 3.3 KHz
analog voice channel interface to the POTS
Rates <56 kbps; early way to connect to the Internet

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

The V.32 constellation and bandwidth

The V.32bis constellation and bandwidth

Local loop (2): Digital Subscriber Lines


DSL broadband sends data over the local loop to the local
office using frequencies that are not used for POTS
Telephone/computers
attach to the same old
phone line
Rates vary with line
ADSL2 up to 12 Mbps

OFDM is used up to
1.1 MHz for ADSL2
Most bandwidth down

QAM modulation
CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Local loop (3): Digital Subscriber Lines

Bandwidth versus distance over Category 3 UTP for DSL.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall , 2011

Local loop (4): Fiber To The Home


FTTH broadband relies on deployment of fiber optic cables
to provide high data rates to customers
One wavelength can be shared among many houses
Fiber is passive (no amplifiers, etc.)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Trunks and Multiplexing (1)


Digitizing Voice Signals
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation):
Analog signals are digitized in the end office by a
device called a codec (coder-decoder)
8000 samples per second (125 sec/sample)
Nyquist sufficient for 4-kHz telephone channel
bandwidth
Each sample of the amplitude quantized to an 8-bit
number
The standard uncompressed data rate for a voice-grade
telephone call is thus 8 bits every 125 sec, or 64 kbps.

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Trunks and Multiplexing (2)


Calls are carried digitally on PSTN trunks using TDM
A call is an 8-bit PCM sample each 125 s (64 kbps)
Traditional T1 carrier has 24 call channels each 125 s
(1.544 Mbps) with symbols based on AMI

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Trunks and Multiplexing (3)

Multiplexing T1 streams into higher carriers.


T Line

Rate
(Mbps)

Voice
Channels

E Line

Rate
(Mbps)

Voice
Channels

T-1

1.544

24

E-1

2.048

30

T-2

6.312

96

E-2

8.448

120

T-3

44.736

672

E-3

34.368

480

T-4

274.176

4032

E-4

139.264

1920

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall , 2011

Trunks and Multiplexing (4)


SONET (Synchronous Optical NETwork) is the worldwide
standard for carrying digital signals on optical trunks
Keeps 125 s frame; base frame is 810 bytes (52Mbps)
Payload floats within framing for flexibility

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Trunks and Multiplexing (5)


Hierarchy at 3:1 per level is used for higher rates
Each level also adds a small amount of framing
Rates from 50 Mbps (STS-1) to 40 Gbps (STS-768)

SONET/SDH rate hierarchy

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Trunks and Multiplexing (6)


WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing), another name for
FDM, is used to carry many signals on one fiber:

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Switching (1)
PSTN uses circuit switching; Internet uses packet switching

PSTN:

Internet:

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Switching (2)
Circuit switching requires
call setup (connection)
before data flows smoothly
Also teardown at end
(not shown)
Packet switching treats
messages independently
No setup, but variable
queuing delay at routers
Circuits
CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Packets

Switching (3)
Comparison of circuit- and packet-switched networks

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Problems
1. A simple telephone system consists of two end offices and a
single toll office to which each end office is connected by a
1-MHz full-duplex trunk. The average telephone is used to
make four calls per 8-hour workday. The mean call duration
is 6 min. Ten percent of the calls are long distance (i.e., pass
through the toll office). What is the maximum number of
telephones an end office can support? (Assume 4 kHz per
circuit.) Explain why a telephone company may decide to
support a lesser number of telephones than this maximum
number at the end office.

Problems

Mobile Telephone System

Generations of mobile telephone systems


Cellular mobile telephone systems
GSM, a 2G system
UMTS, a 3G system

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Generations of mobile telephone systems


1G, analog voice
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) is example, deployed
from 1980s. Modulation based on FM (as in radio).

2G, analog voice and digital data


GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is example,
deployed from 1990s. Modulation based on QPSK.

3G, digital voice and data


UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) is
example, deployed from 2000s. Modulation based on CDMA

4G, digital data including voice


LTE (Long Term Evolution) is example, deployed from 2010s.
Modulation based on OFDM
CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Cellular mobile phone systems


All based on notion of spatial regions called cells
Each mobile uses a frequency in a cell; moves cause handoff
Frequencies are reused across non-adjacent cells
To support more mobiles, smaller cells can be used

Cellular reuse pattern


CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Smaller cells for dense mobiles

GSM Global System for Mobile


Communications (1)

Mobile is divided into handset and SIM card (Subscriber


Identity Module) with credentials
Mobiles tell their HLR (Home Location Register) their current
whereabouts for incoming calls
Cells keep track of visiting mobiles (in the Visitor LR)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

GSM Global System for Mobile


Communications (2)
Air interface is based on FDM channels of 200 KHz
divided in an eight-slot TDM frame every 4.615 ms
Mobile is assigned up- and down-stream slots to use
Each slot is 148 bits long, gives rate of 27.4 kbps

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

UMTS Universal Mobile


Telecommunications System (1)
Architecture is an evolution of GSM; terminology differs
Packets goes to/from the Internet via SGSN/GGSN

Internet

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

UMTS Universal Mobile


Telecommunications System (2)
Air interface based on CDMA over 5 MHz channels
Rates over users <14.4 Mbps (HSPDA) per 5 MHz
CDMA allows frequency reuse over all cells
CDMA permits soft handoff (connected to both cells)
Soft
handoff

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Cable Television

Internet over cable


Spectrum allocation
Cable modems
ADSL vs. cable

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Internet over Cable


Internet over cable reuses the cable television plant
Data is sent on the shared cable tree from the headend, not on a dedicated line per subscriber (DSL)

ISP
(Internet)

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Spectrum Allocation
Upstream and downstream data are allocated to
frequency channels not used for TV channels:

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Cable Modems
Cable modems at customer premises implement the
physical layer of the DOCSIS standard
QPSK/QAM is used in timeslots on frequencies that
are assigned for upstream/downstream data

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

Cable vs. ADSL


Cable:
+ Uses coaxial cable to
customers (good bandwidth)
Data is broadcast to all
customers (less secure)
Bandwidth is shared over
customers so may vary

ADSL:
+ Bandwidth is dedicated for
each customer
+ Point-to-point link does not
broadcast data
Uses twisted pair to
customers (lower bandwidth)
CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011

End
Chapter 2

CN5E by Tanenbaum & Wetherall, Pearson Education-Prentice Hall and D. Wetherall, 2011