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CHAPTER NINE

Learning,
Memory,
and
Product
Positioning
Learning, Memory, and Product Positioning
McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserv

The Role of Learning

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Learning Theories and Involvement

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Learning through Conditioning

Conditioning refers to learning based on


association of a stimulus and response.
Classical (low involvement): using an
established relationship between a
stimulus and response (Pavlov Dog)
Operant (high involvement): molding
or shaping behavior by using a
reinforcement (Skinners pigeon)

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Classical Conditioning

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Affective Influence in Trial

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Operant Conditioning

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The Process of Shaping

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Cognitive Learning

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Cognitive learning encompasses all the mental


activities of humans as they work to solve
problems or cope with situations.
Iconic Rote (low involvement): the
association between two or more concepts in
the absence of conditioning
Vicarious/Modeling (low or high
involvement): Observing the outcomes of
others behaviors and adjusting their own
accordingly
Reasoning (high involvement): Individuals
engage in creative thinking to restructure and
recombine existing information as well as new
information to form new associations and
concepts.

Summary of Learning Theories and Involvement

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Linking Learning to Memory...

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Characteristics of Learning
Strength of Learning
Extinction
Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus
Discrimination

Response Environment

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The Impact of Repetition

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Repetition Timing on Advertising Recall

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Forgetting Over Time

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Memory

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Total accumulation of prior learning experiences


Explicit memory (Remembering)
Conscious recollection of an exposure event

Implicit memory (Knowing)


Non-conscious retrieval of previously encountered
stimuli
A sense of familiarity, a feeling or a set of beliefs about
an item without conscious awareness of when & how
they were acquired

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Short-term Memory

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Portion of total memory that is currently

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activated or in use
Often refereed to as working memory
Analogous to thinking
Has limited capacity
An active, dynamic process, not a static
structure

Short-term Memory

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Information processing activities


Elaborative activities
Use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes,
beliefs & feelings to interpret & evaluate information in
working memory as well as to add relevant previously
stored information
Serve to redefine/add new elements to memory

Maintenance rehearsal
Continual repetition of information to hold it in current
memory for use in problem solving or transferal to longterm

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Short-term Memory

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Short-term memory activities involve


Concept
Abstraction of reality that capture the meaning of an item
in terms of other concepts
Similar to dictionary definition of a word

Imagery
Involves concrete sensory representations of ideas,
feelings & objects
Permits direct recovery of aspects of past experiences
Involves recall & manipulation of sensory images

Marketers want to obtain imagery responses


than / in addition to verbal ones
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Long-term Memory

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Unlimited, permanent storage


Semantic memory
Basic knowledge/feelings about a concept
Understanding of an object / event at its
simplest level

Episodic memory
Memory of sequence of events in which a
person participated
Often elicit imagery & feelings

Recalling long-term memory is not

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completely objective
Memory is sometimes shaped &
changed as it is accessed

Long-term Memory

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Schema / Schematic memory /knowledge


structure
Complex web of associations
Pattern of association of concepts & episodes
with other concepts & episodes around a
particular concept
It is what the consumer thinks & feels when the
brand name is mentioned
Similar to brand image
Source is personal experience as well as
marketing activities
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Long-term Memory

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Schema / Schematic memory /knowledge


structure
Can contain product characteristics, usage
situations, episodes & affective reactions
Concepts, events & feelings are
Stored within nodes within memory
Connected with associative links
Links vary how strongly & directly they are associated with a
node

Some aspects are relatively permanent


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Long-term Memory

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United Colors of
Benetton
Formal
Expensive
Informal
Work Place
Posh
Fashionable

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Sleek

Parties
Young Executives
Festive People

Long-term Memory

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Scripts
Memory of how an action sequence should
occur
A special type of schema
Necessary for consumers to shop effectively
Difficulty is to teach the consumers about
appropriate acquisition, use and disposal
behavior

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Brand Image

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Schematic memory of a brand


Target markets interpretation of product
attributes, benefits, usage situations, users and
manufacturer/marketer characteristics

In essence, it is what consumers have learned


about the brand

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Product Positioning

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Decision by a marketer to try to achieve a


defined brand image relative to competition
within a market segment

Often used interchangeably with brand image


Marketing mix is manipulated in line with the
desired product position

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Product Positioning

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Perceptual Mapping
Technique for measuring & developing a
products position

Takes consumers perception of similar


brands & relates these to product attributes

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Product Positioning

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Trendy, Youthful,
Fast
I1

I 2 UCB

Westecs

Economical,
Common

Expensive,
Prestigious

Traditional,
Conservative
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Product Repositioning

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Deliberate decision to significantly alter the


way the market views a product

Evolution is natural & inevitable


Can involve performance, evoked feelings,
situations in which to use or even users

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Brand Equity

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Value customers assign to a brand beyond its


functional characteristics
Implies economic value
Based on product position of the brand
Source of economic value from a positive
brand image comes from
Consumers behaviors toward existing items with
that brand name
Principle of stimulus generalization
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Brand Leverage

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Often termed family branding, brand


extensions or umbrella branding

Capitalizing on brand equity by using an


existing brand name

Sometimes done to bolster the brand image


To be effective product must be connected
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Brand Leverage

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Successful brand leverage requires the new


product to fit with the original product on at
least 1 of 4 dimensions:
Complement
Substitute
Transfer
Image

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