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Advanced Manufacturing

Systems Design
2000 John W. Nazemetz
Lecture 5 Topic :

Group Technology

Definition and
Concepts

Segment A Topic:

ADVANCED
MANUFACTURING
SYSTEMS DESIGN
Group Technology
Definition and Concepts

Slide 2

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Overview
Group Technology
Definitions
Concepts

Slide 3

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Group Technology
Definition (1)
Definition
Group Technology is an operating
management philosophy based on the
recognition that similarities occur in the
design and manufacture of discrete parts.
Group Technology exploits the similarities
among attributes of objects for the
purpose of performing a known function.
The attributes may be physical or process
oriented.
Slide 4

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Group Technology
Definition (2)
Alternate Definition (Webster)
Group
To Combine in a Group, to Assign to a
Group, Synonymous with Classify

Technology
An Applied Science, A Technical Method to
Achieve a Practical Purpose.

GT => A Technical Method of Group


Formation

Slide 5

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Group Technology
-Applications
Applications
Design
Similar Shapes
Similar Processing

Group Scheduling
Sequence Dependant Set Ups

Cellular Manufacturing (Decomposition


of Manufacturing Problem)
Logical Cells
Physical Cells
Slide 6

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Group TechnologyBenefits
Design

Manufacturing

Part Standardization
Reduces Inventories
Reduces Managerial
Complexity

Access to
Manufacturing
Process Information
Increased Designer
Productivity

Slide 7

Increase
Throughput
Reduce Variability
Improve Inventory
Management
Reduce Set Up
Improve Efficiency
Improve Quality
Simplify Procedures
Reduce Tooling

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Classification and
Coding (1)
Classification
Grouping of Like Things
Based on Physical or Process
Attributes
Logical and Systematic

Coding
Shorthand Notation for Complex Ideas

Slide 8

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Classification and
Coding (2)
Classification

All - Embracing
Mutually Exclusive
Based on Permanent Characteristics
Reflect Users Objective and
Nomenclature

Coding
Set of Symbols to which a Meaning has
been Assigned
Will Database Technology Render Coding
Obsolete?
Slide 9

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Group Technology
Grouping Attributes (1)

Shape
Form Features
Treatments
Functions
Size Envelopes
Tolerance

Slide 10

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Group Technology
Grouping Attributes (2)

Surface Finish
Material Type/Condition
Quantity
Next Assembly
Raw Material Form
(Others Based on
Application/User)

Slide 11

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Group Technology
Grouping Methods
Visual Inspection of Existing Parts
Usually Done As Parts are Made

Using Codes Defined During Design


Pattern Recognition (Similarity)
Features
Processes

Query
Characteristics in Database
Derived Attributes
Additionally Input Attributes
Slide 12

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Monocode (1)
Additional Digits Amplifies
Previous Digit
Digit 1 = 1 -> Component
Digit 2 = 4 ->Cylinder
Digit 3 = Diameter, Digit 4 = Length,

Digit 2 = 5 -> Rectangular


Digit 3 = Length, Digit 4= Width,
Digit 5 = Height, etc

Slide 13

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Monocode (2)
Additional Digits Amplifies
Previous Digit
Digit 1 = 2 -> Assembly
Digit 2 = ->Assembly Method
1 = Mechanical

Digit 3 = -> Assembly Parameter


IF Digit 2 =1, Digit 3= Type of Fastener
IF Digit 2 = 2 (Weld), Digit 3 = Type (Arc,
)
Slide 14

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Monocode (3)
Additional Digits Amplifies
Previous Digit
Large Number of Combinations
Possible
N1 x N 2 x N 3 x N 4 x N n

Difficult for Human Interpretation


Cannot Sort on Single (Internal)
Digit
Meaning Dependant on Preceding Digit
Slide 15

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Polycode
Each Digit Has Single Meaning
Combinations Possible
N1 + N 2 + N 3 + N 4 + + N n

Block Code Not Difficult for


Human Interpretation
Can Sort on Single (Internal) Digit
Meaning Independent of Preceding
Digit

Long Codes May Result


Slide 16

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Mixed Codes
Combines Mono- and PolyCoding
Attempt to Shorten Code while
Allowing a Larger Number of
Possibilities

Slide 17

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Is Coding Obsolete? (1)


Should Actual Data be Used vs.
a Code Which Inexactly
Represents It?
Attributes can be Derived and
Stored Automatically
I.e., Largest Dimension = Length
Use Database Search Engine/Query
to Find Groups
Dynamic Not Predefined, Flexible
Slide 18

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Is Coding Obsolete? (2)


Not Quite Yet
Coding Is Efficient
Legacy Systems Use Coding
Coding Embedded in Corporate
Culture

Slide 19

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Using Database
Elements for Grouping
(1)
Problems
Speed of Search
Requirement to Exact Match,
Control of Alphanumeric Elements
Synonyms
Is 1020 same as 1020 Steel?

Spelling
Is ALUM same as Alum same as Aluminium?

Confusion
Is 305 a Stainless or a Tool Steel?
Slide 20

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Using Database
Elements for Grouping
(2)
Solutions
Indexing Data to Speed Search
Quicker to Search Numeric Fields
Use Multiple Stage Searches (Code?)

Requirement to Exact Match,


Control of Alphanumeric Elements
Use Drop-Down Selections to Control
Input (Must be all-inclusive)
Can Allow Editable Drop Downs But
Maintenance is Required.
Slide 21

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Using Database
Elements for Grouping
(3)
Maintenance
Make System Data Driven
No Hard Coding
Higher Initial Cost
Lower Maintenance

Requires Diligence and Discipline

Slide 22

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Advanced Manufacturing
Systems Design
2000 John W. Nazemetz
Lecture 5 Topic :

Group Technology

Definition and
Concepts

Segment A Topic:

END OF SEGMENT

Advanced Manufacturing
Systems Design
2000 John W. Nazemetz
Lecture 5 Topic :

Group Technology

Segment B Topic:

Example

ADVANCED
MANUFACTURING
SYSTEMS DESIGN
Group Technology
Example - GTSS

Slide 25

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

GTSS
Group Technology Selection System
Developed for DLA to Assist in
Acquisition
Developed as Part of the CATT Program

Slide 26

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Overall Mission
Facilitate the Part Acquisition Process
Identify Manufacturers with Particular
Capabilities
Grouping of Parts by their Similarities
Enable Mapping of Manufacturers to
Individual or Groups of Parts Using
Group Technology and Information
Technologies
Slide 27

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Project Initiative

Create National and Local Versions of


Part and Vendor Information System
DLA Deployment (DSCR, DSCC)
SCRA, DSCC, DSCR, OSU
Captures only manufacturers with CAGE
codes

Oklahoma Deployment
CATT -- CDS, GTI/ICI Group, OKC-ALC
Captures Oklahoma manufacturers
Slide 28

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

GTSS Information Flow


High-Level Inputs

High-Level Output s

Vendor
Database

SAMMS
FSC, NIIN, WSC,
Part Name, Part No.,
Cage Code, Dwg No./Rev.

SAMMS

Parts
to be coded
or procured

GTSS
Value Engr. Division
Update

TDPs

File of
GT cod ed
Parts

via
JEDMICS

Vendor
Data

Reports
Grouping
Mapping

Slide 29

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

System Functions
NSN Data Entry
Identification Data
GT Code Generation

Vendor Data Entry


Identification Data
Capabilities

Grouping
Mapping

Slide 30

Data Manipulation

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

Entry/Edit Data
Error Checking
File Import/Export
Data Display (Search)
Data Display (Filter)
Data Display (Sort)
Vendor Queries
Report Generation

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Systems Design
Concepts
COTS Software
Graphical Interface
Windows 95
PowerBuilder
Oracle

Easy to Use
Intuitive
Simple

Security

Group Technology

Passwords
User Levels

Part Feature Based Part


and Vendor Codes

On-Line Help

Data Driven
Ease of Maintenance

Slide 31

Easy to Use

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Data Base Design


Concepts

Balance Data Detail Level, DB Size


Longer/Deeper Code
Better Data Resolution, But
Data Base Grows Exponentially

Use Auxiliary Fields to Reduce DB Size

Hybrid Group Technology Code


First Positions used to Define Rest of
Code
Same Code for Vendors and Parts
Parts have a Single Code
Vendors have Multiple Codes
Slide 32

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Data Base Design


Concepts (cont.)
Impact of Code Length/Depth on DB
Number of categories is product of number
of positions and number of possible
selections
Example: For a 10 position code with each
code position having 5 possible selections,
9,765,625 possible
combinations/categories
While a part would have only one code, a vendor
who can make everything has nearly 10 million.

Slide 33

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Data Base Design


Concepts (cont.)
Impact of Auxiliary Fields
If data is stored in an auxiliary field
rather than a code digit, DB size is
reduced
Example: if auxiliary field were used to
reduce a 10 position, 5 selection code
to 7 positions, 5 selections, the
number of possible combinations is
78,125, not 9,765,625

Slide 34

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Data Base Design


Concepts (cont.)
Data in GT Code

Material Type [2]


Shape
[4]
Raw Matl Form [4]
Alt. Matl Form
[4]
Size
[5,30]
Tolerances
[4]
Quality [4]

Data in Auxiliary
Fields

Material Spec Type


Material Spec
Plating
Treatment
Coating
Material Name

approximately
53,760 possible
categories

Slide 35

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

if these fields in
code @ 10
selections each,
one half trillion
categories

2000 John W. Nazemetz

GT Code Design
Concepts
First Two Code Positions Are Fixed
Part Type (Initial Project Scope)
Mechanical Piece Part
Mechanical Subassembly

Shape
Prismatic, Cylindrical, Sculptured, Gears
Not Used for subassemblies

Slide 36

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

GT Code Design
Concepts (cont.)

Remaining Code Elements


Piece Parts

Slide 37

Size
Tolerances
Raw Material Form
Alt. Raw Material Form
Quality Req.

Subassemblies

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

Kitted/Assembly
Weight
Size
Fabrication/Machinin
g
Tolerances
Quality Req.

2000 John W. Nazemetz

GUI Design Concepts


Follows WINDOWS Standards
Main Toolbar w/Dropdown menus
Relocatable Icon Toolbar
Right Mouse Button Activated
Response Windows
Context Sensitive Help Available
Dynamic Error Checking

Slide 38

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Summary/Assessment
Concepts
Theoretically Sound
Method of Coding Manufacturers Was
Awkward

Problems
No Funds for Legacy Part Coding

Use
Used to Identify Suppliers

Slide 39

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Advanced Manufacturing
Systems Design
2000 John W. Nazemetz
Lecture 5 Topic :

Group Technology

Segment B Topic:

Example

END OF SEGMENT

Advanced Manufacturing
Systems Design
2000 John W. Nazemetz
Lecture 5 Topic :

Group Technology

Grouping
Analysis Methods

Segment C Topic:

ADVANCED
MANUFACTURING
SYSTEMS DESIGN
Group Technology
Grouping Analysis Methods

Slide 42

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Overview
Grouping/Analysis Methods
Production Flow Analysis
Rank Order Clustering
Similarity Indexes
Single Linkage
Weighted (Production Volume)

Mathematical Programming

NOTE: The Following Slide Materials are


From Singh, Systems Approach to
Computer Integrated Design and
Manufacturing, p. 490-499.

Slide 43

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Production Flow
Analysis

Slide 44

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Productio
n
Flow
Analysis

Matrix
Manipulation
Row and Column
Sorting

Slide 45

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Rank Order Clustering


(1)

Slide 46

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Rank Order Clustering (2)

Slide 47

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Rank Order Clustering (3)

Slide 48

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Single Linkage Cluster


Algorithm (1)

Slide 49

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Single Linkage Cluster


Algorithm (2)

Slide 50

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Single Linkage Cluster


Algorithm (3)

Slide 51

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Siefoddini and Wolfe


Considers Production Volume
(Weighted Average)

Slide 52

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Exceptional Parts and


Bottleneck Machines
Practical Approach to Problem of
Costly Equipment
Allow InterCell Movement
Elimination
Generate Alternate Processing Plans
Duplicate Machines
Subcontracting Operations
Still Has InterCell Transfers

Slide 53

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Alternate Cell
Configurations (SLCA)

Slide 54

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Alternate Cell
Configuration Analysis

Why
Cell
One?

Slide 55

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Mathematical Models
Cell Design with Known Part Families
Minimize Machine Investment

Cell Design with Unknown Part Families


Minimize Machine Investment
Constrains Maximum Number of Machines
in Cell

Cell Design With Unknown Part


Families, Key Machines
Minimize Investment,
Movement/Backtracking
Slide 56

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Grouping Efficacy
Method for Evaluating Goodness of
Fit

Slide 57

Computer Integrated
Manufacturing Systems

2000 John W. Nazemetz

Advanced Manufacturing
Systems Design
2000 John W. Nazemetz
Group Technology
Grouping -Analysis Methods

Discussion Topic C:

END OF SEGMENT