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Rekayasa Radio

TTG4B3

SEMESTER GANJIL 2015 2016

Radio Propagation
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves
EM wave is a wave produced by the interaction
of time varying electric and magnetic field
Electromagnetic fields are typically generated
by alternating current (AC) in electrical
conductors
The EM field composes of two fields (vectors)

Electric vector E
Magnetic vector H

Electromagnetic waves can be

Reflected and scattered


Refracted
Diffracted
Absorbed (its energy)

Radio Propagation
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves Properties
E and H vectors are orthogonal
In free space environment, the EM-wave
propagates at the speed of light (c)
The distance between the wave crests is called
the wavelength ()
The frequency ( f )is the number of times the
wave oscillates
The relation that combines the EM-wave
frequency and wavelength with the speed of
light is:
=c/f

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation
Ground Wave

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation
Ground Wave
Keuntungan: tidak dipengaruhi kondisi atmosfer
Kerugian:
Memerlukan daya yang besar
Memerlukan Dimensi antena yg besar

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation
Sky Wave

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation
Sky Wave
Terjadi pada HF (3 30MHz)
Propagasi ini dipengaruhi kondisi atmosfer siang/malam
Contoh: Pemancar Radio Amatir

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation
Line of Sight Propagation

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation

Radio Propagation
Radio Wave Propagation
The propagation of radio wave is affected by :
Frequency Effect
Terrain Effect
Atmospheric Effect
Multipath Effect
All the above mentioned effects cause a degradation in quality

Radio Propagation
Frequency Effect
Attenuation: Loss
Propagation of radio depends on frequency band
At frequencies above 6 GHz radio wave is more affected
by gas absorption and precipitation
At frequencies close to 10 GHz the effects of
precipitation begins to dominate
Gas absorption starts influencing at 22 GHz where
the water vapour shows characteristic peak

Radio Propagation
Terrain Effect
Reflection and scattering
The radio wave propagating near the surface of earth is
influenced by:
Electrical characteristics of earth
Topography of terrain including man-made structures

Radio Propagation
Atmospheric Effect

Loss and refraction


The gaseous constituents and temperature of the
atmosphere influence radio waves by:
Absorbing its energy
Variations in refractive index which cause the radio
wave reflect, refract and scatter

Radio Propagation
Atmospheric Effect

Radio Propagation
Atmospheric Effect

Radio Propagation
Multipath Effect

Multipath effect occurs when many signals with different


amplitude and/or phase reach the receiver

Multipath effect is caused by reflection and refraction

Multipath propagation cause fading