Sie sind auf Seite 1von 99

Chapter 5

Link Layer
A note on the use of these ppt slides:
Were making these slides freely available to all (faculty, students, readers).
Theyre in PowerPoint form so you see the animations; and can add, modify,
and delete slides (including this one) and slide content to suit your needs.
They obviously represent a lot of work on our part. In return for use, we only
ask the following:
If you use these slides (e.g., in a class) that you mention their source
(after all, wed like people to use our book!)
If you post any slides on a www site, that you note that they are adapted
from (or perhaps identical to) our slides, and note our copyright of this
material.
Thanks and enjoy! JFK/KWR

Computer
Networking: A
Top Down
Approach
6th edition
Jim Kurose, Keith
Ross
Addison-Wesley
March 2012

All material copyright 1996-2012


J.F Kurose and K.W. Ross, All Rights Reserved
Link Layer 5-1

Chapter 5: Link layer


our goals:

understand principles behind link


layer services:
error detection, correction
sharing a broadcast channel: multiple
access
link layer addressing
local area networks: Ethernet, VLANs

instantiation, implementation of
various link layer technologies

Link Layer

5-2

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer

5-3

Link layer:
introduction
terminology:

hosts and routers: nodes


communication channels
that connect adjacent
nodes along
communication path: links
wired links
wireless links
LANs
layer-2 packet: frame,
encapsulates datagram

global ISP

data-link layer has responsibility of


transferring datagram from one node
to physically adjacent node over a link
Link Layer

5-4

Link layer: context

datagram transferred
by different link
protocols over different
links:
e.g., Ethernet on first
link, frame relay on
intermediate links,
802.11 on last link
each link protocol
provides different
services
e.g., may or may not
provide rdt over link

transportation analogy:

trip from Princeton to


Lausanne
limo: Princeton to JFK
plane: JFK to Geneva
train: Geneva to Lausanne

tourist = datagram
transport segment =
communication link
transportation mode =
link layer protocol
travel agent = routing
algorithm

Link Layer

5-5

Link layer services

framing, link access:


encapsulate datagram into frame, adding
header, trailer
channel access if shared medium
MAC addresses used in frame headers to
identify source, dest
different from IP address!

reliable delivery between adjacent nodes

we learned how to do this already (chapter 3)!


seldom used on low bit-error link (fiber, some
twisted pair)
wireless links: high error rates
Q: why both link-level and end-end reliability?

Link Layer

5-6

Link layer services


(more)

flow control:

pacing between adjacent sending and receiving


nodes

error detection:
errors caused by signal attenuation, noise.
receiver detects presence of errors:
signals sender for retransmission or drops frame

error correction:
receiver identifies and corrects bit error(s) without
resorting to retransmission

half-duplex and full-duplex


with half duplex, nodes at both ends of link can
transmit, but not at same time
Link Layer

5-7

Where is the link layer


implemented?

in each and every host


link layer implemented
in adaptor (aka
network interface card
NIC) or on a chip
Ethernet card, 802.11
card; Ethernet chipset
implements link,
physical layer
attaches into hosts
system buses
combination of
hardware, software,
firmware

application
transport
network
link

cpu

memory

controller
link
physical

host
bus
(e.g., PCI)

physical
transmission

network adapter
card

Link Layer

5-8

Adaptors communicating
datagram

datagram
controller

controller

receiving host

sending host
datagram

frame

sending side:
encapsulates datagram
in frame
adds error checking
bits, rdt, flow control,
etc.

receiving side
looks for errors, rdt, flow
control, etc
extracts datagram,
passes to upper layer at
receiving side
Link Layer

5-9

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-10

Error detection
EDC= Error Detection and Correction bits (redundancy)
D = Data protected by error checking, may include header fields

Error detection not 100% reliable!


protocol may miss some errors, but rarely
larger EDC field yields better detection and correction

otherwise

Link Layer 5-11

Parity checking
single bit parity:

detect single bit


errors

two-dimensional bit parity:

detect and correct single bit errors

Link Layer 5-12

Internet checksum (review)


goal: detect errors (e.g., flipped bits) in transmitted
packet (note: used at transport layer only)

sender:

treat segment
contents as sequence
of 16-bit integers
checksum: addition
(1s complement
sum) of segment
contents
sender puts
checksum value into
UDP checksum field

receiver:
compute checksum of
received segment
check if computed
checksum equals
checksum field value:
NO - error detected
YES - no error
detected. But maybe
errors nonetheless?

Link Layer 5-13

Cyclic redundancy check

more powerful error-detection coding


view data bits, D, as a binary number
choose r+1 bit pattern (generator), G
goal: choose r CRC bits, R, such that
<D,R> exactly divisible by G (modulo 2)
receiver knows G, divides <D,R> by G. If non-zero
remainder: error detected!
can detect all burst errors less than r+1 bits

widely used in practice (Ethernet, 802.11 WiFi,


ATM)

Link Layer 5-14

CRC example
want:
D.2r XOR R = nG
equivalently:
D.2r = nG XOR R
equivalently:
if we divide D.2r by
G, want remainder
R to satisfy:
R = remainder[

D.2r
]
G

r=3
G

# of Bits in G -1

101010
1001 101110000
1001
101
000
1010
1001
110
000
1100
1001
R
1010
1001
Actualstreamsent
011
101110011
IfCRCagainR=000
Link Layer 5-15

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-16

Multiple access links,


protocols
two types of links:
point-to-point

PPP for dial-up access


point-to-point link between Ethernet switch, host

broadcast (shared wire or medium)


old-fashioned Ethernet
upstream HFC Hybrid Fiber CoAx
802.11 wireless LAN

shared wire (e.g.,


cabled Ethernet)

shared RF
(e.g., 802.11 WiFi)

shared RF
(satellite)

humans at a
cocktail party
(shared air, acoustical)
Link Layer 5-17

Multiple access protocols

single shared broadcast channel


two or more simultaneous transmissions by nodes:
interference
collision if node receives two or more signals at
the same time

multiple access protocol

distributed algorithm that determines how nodes


share channel, i.e., determine when node can
transmit
communication about channel sharing must use
channel itself!
no out-of-band channel for coordination
Link Layer 5-18

An ideal multiple access


protocol
given: broadcast channel of rate R bps
desiderata: what is desired
1. when one node wants to transmit, it can send
at rate R.
2. when M nodes want to transmit, each can
send at average rate R/M
3. fully decentralized:
no special node to coordinate transmissions
no synchronization of clocks, slots
4. simple

Link Layer 5-19

MAC protocols: taxonomy


three broad classes:
channel partitioning
divide channel into smaller pieces (time slots,
frequency, code)
allocate piece to node for exclusive use

random access
channel not divided, allow collisions
recover from collisions

taking turns
nodes take turns, but nodes with more to send can
take longer turns

Link Layer 5-20

Channel partitioning MAC protocols:


TDMA
TDMA: time division multiple access

access to channel in "rounds"


each station gets fixed length slot
(length = pkt trans time) in each round
unused slots go idle
example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt,
slots 2,5,6 idle
6-slot
frame

6-slot
frame
1

Link Layer 5-21

Channel partitioning MAC protocols:


FDMA
FDMA: frequency division multiple access

channel spectrum divided into frequency bands


each station assigned fixed frequency band
unused transmission time in frequency bands go
idle
example: 6-station LAN, 1,3,4 have pkt,
frequency bands 2,5,6 idle

FDM cable

frequency bands

time

Link Layer 5-22

Random access protocols

when node has packet to send

transmit at full channel data rate R.


no a priori coordination among nodes

two or more transmitting nodes


collision,
random access MAC protocol specifies:

how to detect collisions


how to recover from collisions (e.g., via delayed
retransmissions)

examples of random access MAC protocols:


slotted ALOHA
ALOHA
CSMA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA

Link Layer 5-23

Slotted ALOHA
assumptions:

all frames same size


time divided into
equal size slots (time
to transmit 1 frame)
nodes start to
transmit only slot
beginning
nodes are
synchronized
if 2 or more nodes
transmit in slot, all
nodes detect collision

operation:

when node obtains fresh


frame, transmits in next
slot
if no collision: node
can send new frame
in next slot
if collision: node
retransmits frame in
each subsequent slot
with prob. p until
success
Link Layer 5-24

Slotted ALOHA
node 1

node 2

node 3

C Collision
E Empty
S - Success

Pros:

single active node


can continuously
transmit at full rate
of channel
highly decentralized:
only slots in nodes
need to be in sync
simple

Cons:

collisions, wasting
slots
idle slots
nodes may be able to
detect collision in less
than time to transmit
packet
clock synchronization
Link Layer 5-25

Slotted ALOHA: efficiency


efficiency: long-run

fraction of successful
slots
(many nodes, all with
many frames to send)
suppose: N nodes with
many frames to send,
each transmits in slot with
probability p
prob that given node has
success in a slot = p(1p)N-1
prob that any node has a
success = Np(1-p)N-1
See page 452 for details.

max efficiency: find


p* that maximizes
Np(1-p)N-1
for many nodes, take
limit of Np*(1-p*)N-1
as N goes to infinity,
gives:
max efficiency = 1/e
= .37

at best:

channel
used for useful
transmissions
37%
of time!

Link Layer 5-26

Pure (unslotted) ALOHA

unslotted Aloha: simpler, no synchronization


when frame first arrives
transmit immediately
collision probability increases:
frame sent at t0 collides with other frames sent
in [t0-1,t0+1]

Link Layer 5-27

Pure ALOHA efficiency


P(success by given node) = P(node transmits) .
P(no other node transmits in [t01,t0] .
P(no other node transmits in
[t0,t0+1]

= p . (1-p)N-1 . (1-p)N-1
= p . (1-p)2(N-1)
choosing optimum p and then letting n

= 1/(2e) = .18

even worse than slotted Aloha!


Link Layer 5-28

CSMA (carrier sense multiple


access)
CSMA: listen before transmit:
if channel sensed idle: transmit entire
frame
if channel sensed busy, defer
transmission

human analogy: dont interrupt others!

Link Layer 5-29

CSMA collisions

spatial layout of nodes

collisions can still


occur: propagation
delay means two
nodes may not hear
each others
transmission
collision: entire
packet transmission
time wasted
distance &
propagation delay
play role in in
determining collision
probability
Link Layer 5-30

CSMA/CD (collision
detection)

CSMA/CD: carrier sensing, deferral as in


CSMA

collisions detected within short time


colliding transmissions aborted, reducing channel
wastage

collision detection:
easy in wired LANs: measure signal strengths,
compare transmitted, received signals
difficult in wireless LANs: received signal strength
overwhelmed by local transmission strength

human analogy: the polite conversationalist

Link Layer 5-31

CSMA/CD (collision
detection)
spatial layout of nodes

Link Layer 5-32

Ethernet CSMA/CD
algorithm
1. NIC receives datagram
from network layer,
creates frame
2. If NIC senses channel
idle, starts frame
transmission. If NIC
senses channel busy,
waits until channel idle,
then transmits.
3. If NIC transmits entire
frame without
detecting another
transmission, NIC is
done with frame !

4. If NIC detects another


transmission while
transmitting, aborts
and sends jam signal
5. After aborting, NIC
enters binary
(exponential) backoff:
after mth collision, NIC
chooses K at random
from {0,1,2, , 2m-1}.
NIC waits K512 bit
times, returns to Step 2
longer backoff interval
with more collisions

Link Layer 5-33

CSMA/CD efficiency

Tprop = max prop delay between 2 nodes in LAN


ttrans = time to transmit max-size frame

efficiency goes to 1
as tprop goes to 0
as ttrans goes to infinity

better performance than ALOHA: and simple, cheap, decentralized!

efficiency

1 5t prop /t trans

Link Layer 5-34

Taking turns MAC


protocols
channel partitioning MAC protocols:
share channel efficiently and fairly at high
load
inefficient at low load: delay in channel
access, 1/N bandwidth allocated even if only
1 active node!

random access MAC protocols


efficient at low load: single node can fully
utilize channel
high load: collision overhead

taking turns protocols


look for best of both worlds!
Link Layer 5-35

Taking turns MAC


protocols
polling:

master node
invites slave
nodes to transmit
in turn
typically used with
dumb slave
devices
concerns:
polling
overhead
latency
single point of
failure (master)

data

poll

master
data

slaves

Link Layer 5-36

Taking turns MAC


protocols
token passing:

control token
passed from one
node to next
sequentially.
token message
concerns:
token overhead
latency
single point of
failure (token)

(nothing
to send)
T

data
Link Layer 5-37

Cable access network


Internet frames,TV channels, control transmitted
downstream at different frequencies
cable headend

CMTS

cable modem
termination system

ISP

splitter

cable
modem

upstream Internet frames, TV control, transmitted


upstream at different frequencies in time slots

multiple 40Mbps downstream (broadcast) channels


single CMTS transmits into channels
multiple 30 Mbps upstream channels
multiple access: all users contend for certain
upstream channel time slots (others assigned)

Cable access network


cable headend

MAP frame for


Interval [t1, t2]

Downstream channel i

CMTS

Upstream channel j

t1
Minislots containing
minislots request frames

t2

Residences with cable modems

Assigned minislots containing cable modem


upstream data frames

DOCSIS: data over cable service interface spec

FDM over upstream, downstream frequency channels


TDM upstream: some slots assigned, some have contention
downstream MAP frame: assigns upstream slots
request for upstream slots (and data) transmitted
random access (binary backoff) in selected slots
Link Layer 5-39

Summary of MAC
protocols

channel partitioning, by time, frequency or


code
Time Division, Frequency Division

random access (dynamic),


ALOHA, S-ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD
carrier sensing: easy in some technologies
(wire), hard in others (wireless)
CSMA/CD used in Ethernet
CSMA/CA used in 802.11
taking turns
polling from central site, token passing
bluetooth, FDDI, token ring
Link Layer 5-40

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-41

MAC addresses and ARP

32-bit IP address:
network-layer address for interface
used for layer 3 (network layer) forwarding

MAC (or LAN or physical or Ethernet)


address:
function: used locally to get frame from one
interface to another physically-connected
interface (same network, in IP-addressing
sense)
48 bit MAC address (for most LANs) burned in
NIC ROM, also sometimes software settable
hexadecimal (base 16) notation

e.g.:
1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD
(each
number
represents 4 bits)
Link Layer 5-42

LAN addresses and ARP


each adapter on LAN has unique LAN address
1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD

LAN
(wired or
wireless)
71-65-F7-2B-08-53

adapter
58-23-D7-FA-20-B0

0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98

Link Layer 5-43

LAN addresses (more)

MAC address allocation administered by


IEEE
manufacturer buys portion of MAC address
space (to assure uniqueness)
analogy:
MAC address: like Social Security Number
IP address: like postal address

MAC flat address portability


can move LAN card from one LAN to another

IP hierarchical address not portable


address depends on IP subnet to which node is
attached
Link Layer 5-44

ARP: address resolution


protocol
Question: how to determine
interfaces MAC address,
knowing its IP address?
137.196.7.78
1A-2F-BB-76-09-AD
137.196.7.23
137.196.7.14

ARP table: each IP node


(host, router) on LAN has
table
IP/MAC address
mappings for some
LAN nodes:
TTL>

LAN
71-65-F7-2B-08-53

58-23-D7-FA-20-B0
0C-C4-11-6F-E3-98

137.196.7.88

< IP address; MAC address;

TTL (Time To Live):


time after which
address mapping will
be forgotten (typically
20 min)
Link Layer 5-45

ARP protocol: same LAN

A wants to send
datagram to B
Bs MAC address not in
As ARP table.

A broadcasts ARP query


packet, containing B's
IP address
dest MAC address = FFFF-FF-FF-FF-FF
all nodes on LAN receive
ARP query

B receives ARP packet,


replies to A with its
(B's) MAC address
frame sent to As MAC
address (unicast)

A caches (saves) IPto-MAC address pair


in its ARP table until
information becomes
old (times out)
soft state: information
that times out (goes
away) unless
refreshed

ARP is plug-andplay:
nodes create their
ARP tables without
intervention from net
administrator
Link Layer 5-46

Addressing: routing to another


LAN

walkthrough: send datagram from A to B via R


focus on addressing at IP (datagram) and MAC layer (frame)
assume A knows Bs IP address
assume A knows IP address of first hop router, R (how?)
assume A knows Rs MAC address (how?)

A
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55

B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A

222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D

111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B

222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Link Layer 5-47

Addressing: routing to another


LAN
A creates IP datagram with IP source A, destination B

A creates link-layer frame with R's MAC address as dest,


frame contains A-to-B IP datagram

MAC src: 74-29-9C-E8-FF-55


MAC dest: E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222

IP
Eth
Phy

A
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55

B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A

222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D

111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B

222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Link Layer 5-48

Addressing: routing to another


LAN
frame sent from A to R

frame received at R, datagram removed, passed up to IP

MAC src: 74-29-9C-E8-FF-55


MAC dest: E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222

IP
Eth
Phy

A
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55

IP
Eth
Phy

B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A

222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D

111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B

222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Link Layer 5-49

Addressing: routing to another


LAN
R forwards datagram with IP source A, destination B

R creates link-layer frame with B's MAC address as dest,


frame contains A-to-B IP datagram
MAC src: 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
MAC dest: 49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222

IP
Eth
Phy

A
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55

IP
Eth
Phy

B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A

222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D

111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B

222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Link Layer 5-50

Addressing: routing to another


LAN
R forwards datagram with IP source A, destination B

R creates link-layer frame with B's MAC address as dest,


frame contains A-to-B IP datagram
MAC src: 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
MAC dest: 49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222

IP
Eth
Phy

A
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55

IP
Eth
Phy

B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A

222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D

111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B

222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Link Layer 5-51

Addressing: routing to another


LAN
R forwards datagram with IP source A, destination B

R creates link-layer frame with B's MAC address as dest,


frame contains A-to-B IP datagram
MAC src: 1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
MAC dest: 49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A
IP src: 111.111.111.111
IP dest: 222.222.222.222

IP
Eth
Phy

A
111.111.111.111
74-29-9C-E8-FF-55

B
222.222.222.222
49-BD-D2-C7-56-2A

222.222.222.220
1A-23-F9-CD-06-9B
111.111.111.112
CC-49-DE-D0-AB-7D

111.111.111.110
E6-E9-00-17-BB-4B

222.222.222.221
88-B2-2F-54-1A-0F
Link Layer 5-52

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-53

Ethernet
dominant wired LAN technology:
cheap $20 for NIC
first widely used LAN technology
simpler, cheaper than token LANs and ATM
kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps 10 Gbps

Metcalfes Ethernet sketch


Link Layer 5-54

Ethernet: physical topology

bus: popular through mid 90s

all nodes in same collision domain (can collide with


each other)

star: prevails today

active switch in center


each spoke runs a (separate) Ethernet protocol
(nodes do not collide with each other)

switch

bus: coaxial cable

star

Link Layer 5-55

Ethernet frame structure


sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram
(or other network layer protocol packet)
in Ethernet frametype
dest.
source
preamble address address

data
(payload)

CRC

preamble:
7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed
by one byte with pattern 10101011
used to synchronize receiver, sender
clock rates
Link Layer 5-56

Ethernet frame structure


(more)

addresses: 6 byte source, destination MAC


addresses
if adapter receives frame with matching destination
address, or with broadcast address (e.g. ARP packet),
it passes data in frame to network layer protocol
otherwise, adapter discards frame

type: indicates higher layer protocol (mostly IP


but others possible, e.g., Novell IPX, AppleTalk)
CRC: cyclic redundancy check at receiver
error detected: frame is dropped
type
dest.

source
preamble address address

data
(payload)

CRC

Link Layer 5-57

Ethernet: unreliable,
connectionless

connectionless: no handshaking between


sending and receiving NICs
unreliable: receiving NIC doesnt send acks
or nacks to sending NIC
data in dropped frames recovered only if
initial sender uses higher layer rdt (e.g.,
TCP), otherwise dropped data lost
Ethernets MAC protocol: unslotted
CSMA/CD with binary backoff

Link Layer 5-58

802.3 Ethernet standards: link & physical


layers

many different Ethernet standards


common MAC protocol and frame format
different speeds: 2 Mbps, 10 Mbps, 100
Mbps, 1Gbps, 10G bps
different physical layer media: fiber, cable

application
transport
network
link
physical

MAC protocol
and frame format
100BASE-TX

100BASE-T2

100BASE-FX

100BASE-T4

100BASE-SX

100BASE-BX

copper (twister
pair) physical layer

fiber physical layer


Link Layer 5-59

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-60

Ethernet switch

link-layer device: takes an active role


store, forward Ethernet frames
examine incoming frames MAC address,
selectively forward frame to one-or-more
outgoing links when frame is to be
forwarded on segment, uses CSMA/CD to
access segment
transparent
hosts are unaware of presence of switches
plug-and-play, self-learning
switches do not need to be configured

Link Layer 5-61

Switch: multiple simultaneous


transmissions

hosts have dedicated,


direct connection to
switch
switches buffer packets
Ethernet protocol used on
each incoming link, but no
collisions; full duplex
each link is its own
collision domain
switching: A-to-A and Bto-B can transmit
simultaneously, without
collisions

A
B

C
6

2
4

5
B

3
C

A
switch with six interfaces
(1,2,3,4,5,6)

Link Layer 5-62

Switch forwarding table


Q: how does switch know
A reachable via interface
4, B reachable via
A: each switch
has a switch
interface
5?

table, each entry:

(MAC address of host,


interface to reach host, time
stamp)
looks like a routing table!

C
1

2
4

5
B

3
C

Q: how are entries created,


maintained in switch table?

switch with six interfaces


(1,2,3,4,5,6)

something like a routing


protocol?

Link Layer 5-63

Switch: self-learning

switch learns which


hosts can be reached
through which
interfaces
when frame
received, switch
learns location
of sender: incoming
LAN segment
records
sender/location
pair in switch table
MAC addr
A

Source: A
Dest: A

A A
B

C
6

2
4

5
B

3
C

A
interface

TTL

60

Switch table
(initially empty)

Link Layer 5-64

Switch: frame
filtering/forwarding
when frame received at switch:
1. record incoming link, MAC address of sending host
2. index switch table using MAC destination address
3. if entry found for destination
then {
if destination on segment from which frame arrived
then drop frame
else forward frame on interface indicated by
entry
}
else flood /* forward on all interfaces except
arriving
interface */
Link Layer 5-65

Self-learning, forwarding:
example

frame destination,
A, locaton unknown:
flood

Source: A
Dest: A

A A
B

destination A
selectively send
location
on just one link known:

A A
4
5
B

3
C

A A
A
MAC addr interface
A
A

1
4

TTL
60
60

switch table
(initially empty)

Link Layer 5-66

Interconnecting switches

switches can be connected together


S4
S1

S3

S2

A
B

D
E

I
G

Q: sending from A to G - how does S1 know


to forward frame destined to F via S4 and
S3?
A: self learning! (works exactly the same
as in single-switch case!)
Link Layer 5-67

Self-learning multi-switch
example

Suppose C sends frame to I, I responds to C


S4
S1

S3

S2

A
B

D
E

I
G

Q: show switch tables and packet forwarding in


S1, S2, S3, S4

Link Layer 5-68

Institutional network
mail server

to external
network
router

web server

IP subnet

Link Layer 5-69

Switches vs.
routers
both are store-and-forward:
routers: network-layer
devices (examine networklayer headers)
switches: link-layer
devices (examine link-layer
headers)
both have forwarding
tables:
routers: compute tables
using routing algorithms, IP
addresses
switches: learn forwarding
table using flooding,
learning, MAC addresses

datagram

frame

application
transport
network
link
physical

link
frame
physical

switch
network datagram
link
frame
physical
application
transport
network
link
physical
Link Layer 5-70

VLANs: motivation
consider:

Computer
Science

Electrical
Engineering

Computer
Engineering

CS user moves office to


EE, but wants connect to
CS switch?
single broadcast domain:
all layer-2 broadcast
traffic (ARP, DHCP,
unknown location of
destination MAC
address) must cross
entire LAN
security/privacy,
efficiency issues

Link Layer 5-71

VLANs
Virtual Local
Area Network

switch(es) supporting
VLAN capabilities can
be configured to
define multiple virtual
LANS over single
physical LAN
infrastructure.

port-based VLAN: switch ports


grouped (by switch
management software) so
that single physical switch

15

10

16

Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)

Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)

operates as multiple virtual switches


1

15

10

16

Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)

Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-16)
Link Layer 5-72

Port-based VLAN

traffic isolation: frames


to/from ports 1-8 can
only reach ports 1-8
can also define VLAN based on
MAC addresses of endpoints,
rather than switch port

router

15

10

16

dynamic membership:

ports can be
dynamically assigned
Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)
among VLANs
forwarding between VLANS:
done via routing (just as with
separate switches)

Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)

in practice vendors sell


combined switches plus routers
Link Layer 5-73

VLANS spanning multiple


switches
1

15

10

16

Electrical Engineering
(VLAN ports 1-8)

Computer Science
(VLAN ports 9-15)

Ports 2,3,5 belong to EE VLAN


Ports 4,6,7,8 belong to CS VLAN

trunk port: carries frames between VLANS defined


over multiple physical switches
frames forwarded within VLAN between switches cant be
vanilla 802.1 frames (must carry VLAN ID info)
802.1q protocol adds/removed additional header fields
for frames forwarded between trunk ports

Link Layer 5-74

802.1Q VLAN frame format


type
preamble

dest.
address

source
address

data (payload)

CRC

802.1 frame

type
data (payload)

2-byte Tag Protocol Identifier


(value: 81-00)

CRC

802.1Q frame

Recomputed
CRC

Tag Control Information (12 bit VLAN ID field,


3 bit priority field like IP TOS)

Link Layer 5-75

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-76

Multiprotocol label switching


(MPLS)

initial goal: high-speed IP forwarding


using fixed length label (instead of IP
address)
fast lookup using fixed length identifier
(rather than shortest prefix matching)
borrowing ideas from Virtual Circuit (VC)
approach
but
IP datagram still keeps IP address!
PPP
or Ethernet
header

MPLS header

label
20

IP header

remainder of link-layer frame

Exp S TTL
3

5
Link Layer 5-77

MPLS capable routers

a.k.a. label-switched router


forward packets to outgoing interface based
only on label value (dont inspect IP address)
MPLS forwarding table distinct from IP forwarding
tables

flexibility: MPLS forwarding decisions can


differ from those of IP
use destination and source addresses to route
flows to same destination differently (traffic
engineering)
re-route flows quickly if link fails: pre-computed
backup paths (useful for VoIP)
Link Layer 5-78

MPLS versus IP paths


R6
D
R4

R3

R5

A
R2

IP routing: path to destination


determined by destination
address alone

IP router

Link Layer 5-79

MPLS versus IP paths


entry router (R4) can use different MPLS
routes to A based, e.g., on source address
R6
D
R4

R3

R5

A
R2

IP routing: path to destination


determined by destination
address
alone
MPLS
routing:
path to destination can

be based on source and dest. address

IP-only
router
MPLS and
IP router

fast reroute: precompute backup routes


in case of link failure
Link Layer 5-80

MPLS signaling

modify OSPF, IS-IS link-state flooding protocols to


carry info used by MPLS routing,
e.g., link bandwidth, amount of reserved link bandwidth

entry MPLS router uses RSVP-TE signaling protocol


to set up MPLS forwarding at downstream routers

RSVP-TE

R6

D
R4
R5

modified
link state
flooding

Link Layer 5-81

MPLS forwarding tables


in
out
label label dest
interface

10
12
8

out

A
D
A

R6

0
0
1

in
out
label label dest
interface

R4

R5

10

12

R3

in
out
label label dest
interface

out

R1 adv to R3 and R2 and I can send


to A and my MPLS label is 6 to A
R3 adv to R4 it can route to A,
D and MPLS labels are 10 and 12.
R2 also adv to R4 that it can route
to A using MPLS label 8 via label 6

R2

out

R1
in
out
label label dest
interface

out

0
Link Layer 5-82

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-83

Data center networks

10s to 100s of thousands of hosts, often closely coupled, in close proximity:


e-business (e.g. Amazon)
content-servers (e.g., YouTube, Akamai, Apple, Microsoft)
search engines, data mining (e.g., Google)

challenges:
multiple applications, each serving
massive numbers of clients
managing/balancing load, avoiding
processing, networking, data
bottlenecks

Inside a 40-ft Microsoft container,


Chicago data center
Link Layer 5-84

Data center networks


load balancer: application-layer
routing
receives external client requests
directs workload within data center
returns results to external client
(hiding data center internals from
Border
router
client)

Internet

Load
balancer

Access router

Tier-1 switches

B
A

Load
balancer

Tier-2 switches
TOR
switches
Server racks

8
Link Layer 5-85

Data center networks

rich interconnection among switches, racks:


increased throughput between racks (multiple routing paths possible)
increased reliability via redundancy

Tier-1 switches

Tier-2 switches

TOR
switches
Server racks

Link layer, LANs: outline


5.1 introduction,
services
5.2 error detection,
correction
5.3 multiple access
protocols
5.4 LANs

5.5 link virtualization:


MPLS
5.6 data center
networking
5.7 a day in the life
of a web request

addressing, ARP
Ethernet
switches
VLANS
Link Layer 5-87

Synthesis: a day in the life of a web


request

journey down protocol stack complete!


application, transport, network, link

putting-it-all-together: synthesis!
goal: identify, review, understand protocols
(at all layers) involved in seemingly simple
scenario: requesting www page
scenario: student attaches laptop to campus
network, requests/receives www.google.com

Link Layer 5-88

A day in the life: scenario


DNS server

browser

Comcast network
68.80.0.0/13

school network
68.80.2.0/24
web page

web server
64.233.169.105

Googles network
64.233.160.0/19

Link Layer 5-89

A day in the life connecting to the


Internet
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy

DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP

connecting laptop needs to


get its own IP address, addr
of first-hop router, addr of
DNS server: use DHCP

DHCP request encapsulated


in UDP, encapsulated in IP,
encapsulated in 802.3
Ethernet

Ethernet frame
broadcast (dest:
FFFFFFFFFFFF) on LAN,
received at router
running DHCP server

DHCP

DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP

DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy

router
(runs DHCP)

Ethernet demuxed to
IP demuxed, UDP
demuxed to DHCP

Link Layer 5-90

A day in the life connecting to the


Internet
DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy

DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP

DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP
DHCP

DHCP
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy

router
(runs DHCP)

DHCP server formulates


DHCP ACK containing
clients IP address, IP
address of first-hop
router for client, name &
IP address of DNS server

encapsulation at DHCP
server, frame forwarded
(switch learning) through
LAN, demultiplexing at
client

DHCP client receives


DHCP ACK reply

Client now has IP address, knows name & addr of DNS


server, IP address of its first-hop router
Link Layer 5-91

A day in the life ARP (before DNS,


before HTTP)
DNS
DNS
DNS
ARP query

DNS
UDP
IP
ARP
Eth
Phy

ARP
ARP reply

Eth
Phy
router
(runs DHCP)

before sending HTTP request,


need IP address of
www.google.com: DNS
DNS query created, encapsulated in
UDP, encapsulated in IP,
encapsulated in Eth. To send frame
to router, need MAC address of router
interface: ARP

ARP query broadcast,


received by router, which
replies with ARP reply giving
MAC address of router
interface
client now knows MAC
address of first hop router,
so can now send frame
containing DNS query
Link Layer 5-92

A day in the life using DNSDNS


DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS
DNS

DNS

DNS
UDP
IP
Eth
Phy

DNS
DNS

DNS

DNS server

Comcast network
68.80.0.0/13

router
(runs DHCP)

UDP
IP
Eth
Phy

IP datagram containing
DNS query forwarded
via LAN switch from
client to 1st hop router

IP datagram forwarded
from campus network into
comcast network, routed
(tables created by RIP,
OSPF, IS-IS and/or BGP
routing protocols)
to DNS
demuxed
to DNS server
server
DNS server replies to
client with IP address of
www.google.com

Link Layer 5-93

A day in the lifeTCP connection


carrying HTTP
HTTP

HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy

SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN

SYNACK
SYN
SYNACK
SYN
SYN
SYNACK

TCP
IP
Eth
Phy

web server
64.233.169.105

router
(runs DHCP)

to send HTTP request,


client first opens TCP
socket to web server

TCP SYN segment (step 1 in


3-way handshake) interdomain routed to web server

web server responds


with TCP SYNACK (step 2
in 3-way handshake)

TCP connection established!


Link Layer 5-94

A day in the life HTTP


request/reply web page finally (!!!) displayed
HTTP
HTTP

HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy

HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP

HTTP
HTTP
HTTP
HTTP

HTTP
TCP
IP
Eth
Phy

web server
64.233.169.105

router
(runs DHCP)

HTTP request sent into


TCP socket

IP datagram containing
HTTP request routed to
www.google.com

web server responds


with HTTP reply
(containing web page)

IP datagram containing HTTP reply


routed back to client
Link Layer 5-95

Chapter 5: Summary

principles behind data link layer services:


error detection, correction
sharing a broadcast channel: multiple access
link layer addressing

instantiation and implementation of


various link layer technologies
Ethernet
switched LANS, VLANs
virtualized networks as a link layer: MPLS

synthesis: a day in the life of a web


request
Link Layer 5-96

Chapter 5: lets take a


breath

journey down protocol stack complete


(except PHY)
solid understanding of networking
principles, practice
.. could stop here . but lots of
interesting topics!

wireless
multimedia
security
network management

Link Layer 5-97

Label Distribution Protocol Vs MPLSTE

Data Link Layer 5-98

Parity of Parities

Data Link Layer 5-99