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Statics

Monroe L. Weber-Shirk

Surface Forces

School of Civil and


Environmental Engineering

Static Surface Forces


Forces on plane areas
Forces on curved surfaces
Buoyant force
Stability submerged bodies

Forces on Plane Areas


Two types of problems
Horizontal surfaces (pressure is _______)
constant
dp
Inclined surfaces p a
g

Two unknowns

dz

Total force
____________
of action
Line
____________

Two techniques to find the line of action of


the resultant force
Moments
Pressure prism

Forces on Plane Areas:


net Horizontal surfaces P = 500 kPa
What is the force on the bottom of this
tank of water?
gage
FR pdA p dA pA
FR g hA

p = gh

= volume

FR = weight of overlying fluid!

What
is p?Side view
FR

h = _____________
Vertical distance
to free surface
_____________

F is normal to the surface and towards


the surface if p is positive.
F passes through the ________
centroid of the area.
p
p a

ax 0
x

Top view

Forces on Plane Areas: Inclined


Surfaces
Direction of force Normal to the plane
Magnitude of force
integrate the pressure over the area
pressure is no longer constant!

Line of action
Moment of the resultant force must equal the
moment of the distributed pressure force

Forces on Plane Areas: Inclined


Surfaces
y
FR pc A

g
pc

x
yR

center of pressure

Where could I
counteract
pressure by
supporting
potato at a
single point?

y
xR

centroid
The coordinate
system origin is at
the centroid (yc=0)

Magnitude of Force on Inclined


Plane Area
FR pdA
p pc gy cos

Change in pressure due


to change in elevation

FR pc dA gy cos dA
A

FR pc A g cos ydA
A

FR pc A

ydA =0

for y origin at centroid

centroid of the area


pc is the pressure at the __________________

First Moments

xc

xdA

Moment of an area A about the y axis

1
xdA

A A

Location of centroidal axis

1
yc ydA
A A

Plate thickness

yc gAt y gtdA
A

1
3

For a plate of uniform thickness the intersection of the centroidal


axes is also the center of gravity

Second Moments
moment of inertia of the area
Also called _______________
I x y 2 dA
A

I x I xc Ayc2

Could define i as I/A


Ixc is the 2nd moment with respect to an
axis passing through its centroid and
parallel to the x axis.

The 2nd moment originates whenever one computes the


moment of a distributed load that varies linearly from the
moment axis.

Product of Inertia
A measure of the asymmetry of the area
I xy xydA
A

Product of inertia

I xy xc yc A I xyc

Ixyc = 0
y

Ixyc = 0
y

x
x
If x = xc or y = yc is an axis of symmetry then the product of
(the resulting force will pass through xc)
inertia Ixyc is zero.______________________________________

Properties of Areas
Ixc

Ixc

b
yc

ab
yc A 2

a
b
d

Ixc

A ab

R
yc

a
yc
2
a
yc
3
bd
xc
3

A R 2 yc R

ba 3
I xc
12
3

ba
I xc
36

R4
I xc
4

I xyc 0

I xyc

I xyc

I xc a 2

A 12

ba 2

b 2d
72
I xc a 2

A 18
2
I
R
0 xc
A
4

Properties of Areas
Ixc

yc

R2
A
2

4R
yc
3

b
a
yc

Ixc

yc

A ab

yc a

R2
A
4

4R
yc
3

R 4 I 0 I xc R 2
I xc

xyc
8
A
4
ba
I xc
4

R4
I xc
16

I xyc

I xc a 2

0
A
4

I xc R 2

A
4

Forces on Plane Areas:


Center of Pressure: xR
The center of pressure is not at the centroid (because
pressure is increasing with depth)
x coordinate of center of pressure: xR

xR FR xpdA
A

Moment of resultant = sum of moment of


distributed forces
p pc gy cos
FR pc A

1
xR
xpdA

A
FR
1
xR
x pc gy cos dA

pc A A
1
1
xR
xpc dA
x gy cos dA

pc A A
pc A A

Center of Pressure: xR
xR

1
g cos
xdA

xydA

AA
pc A A

I xyc xydA
A

1
xdA 0

A A

For x,y origin at centroid

g cos I xyc
xR
pc
A

xR is zero if the x axis or y axis is a line of symmetry

Center of Pressure: yR
y R FR ypdA

Sum of the moments

1
yR
ypdA
FR pc A

A
FR
1
yR
y pc gy cos dA

A
pc A
yR

1
1
2
yp
dA

gy
cos dA
c

pc A A
pc A A

1
g cos
yR ydA
A A
pc A

y 2 dA

p pc gy cos

Center of Pressure: yR

FR
1
g cos 1
2
yR ydA
y
dA

A A
pc
A A
I xc y 2 dA
A

1
ydA 0

A A

g cos I xc
yR
pc
A
yR FR I xc g cos

yR
g cos g y

For y origin at centroid


Location of line of action is below
centroid along slanted surface.
yR is distance between centroid
and line of action
The moment about the centroid is
independent of pressure!

Location of average pressure vs.


line of action

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
What is the average depth of blocks? 3 blocks
Where does that average occur?
5
Where is the resultant? Use moments
yR FR 1m 4blocks 3m
8blocks 5m 12
blocks 7m 16blocks 9
m 20blocks
yR FR 380m blocks
380m blocks
yR
6.333m
60blocks

Inclined Surface Findings


The horizontal center of pressure and the
horizontal centroid ________
coincide when the x or
y axis is a line of symmetry for the surface
The center of pressure is always _______
below
the centroid
The vertical distance between the centroid
and the center of pressure _________
decreases as the
surface is lowered deeper into the liquid
The center of pressure is at the centroid for
horizontal surfaces

0
g cos I xyc
xR
pc
A

>0

g I xc
yR
cos
pc A
cos ( 90) =0

Example using Moments


An elliptical gate covers the end of a pipe 4 m in diameter. If the
gate is hinged at the top, what normal force F applied at the
bottom of the gate is required to open the gate when water is 8 m
deep above the top of the pipe and the pipe is open to the
atmosphere on the other side? Neglect the weight of the gate.
teams

Solution Scheme
-Magnitude of the force
applied by the water

8m

Location of the resultant force


Find F using moments about hinge

water
F

hinge

4m

Team Work
How will you define a
coordinate system?
What is the pressure datum?
What are the major steps
required to solve this
problem?
What equations will you use
for each step?

8m

water
F

hinge

4m

Magnitude of the Force

Pressure datum? _____


atm Y axis?
FR pc A

8m

A ab

water

FR
F

hc = _____
10 m Depth to the centroid
g hc
pc = r___
a = 2.5 m
FR ghc ab
kg

m
FR 1000 3 9.8
10 m 2.5
m 2 m
2
m

FR= ________
1.54 MN

b=2m

hinge
4m

Location of Resultant Force


g

g I xc
yR
cos
pc A
cos 4

8m

g hc
pc = r___

water
FR
F

hinge

4m

I xc a 2

4
A
a = 2.5 m

g a 2 4
yR
ghc 4 5

a2
yR
0.125 m
5hc

cp
xR __
0

b=2m

Force Required to Open Gate


g

How do we find the


required force?

8m

Moments about the hinge


M hinge 0 =Fltot - FRlcp
FR lcp
F
ltot

lcp=2.625 m

water
FR
F

4m

2.5 m

cp

1.54 x 10 N 2.625 m
F
6

5 m

F = ______
809 kN

hinge

b=2m

ltot

Forces on Plane Surfaces Review


The average magnitude of the pressure force
is the pressure at the centroid
The horizontal location of the pressure force
gate was symmetrical
was at xc (WHY?) The
____________________
about at least one of the centroidal axes.
___________________________________
The vertical location of the pressure force is
Pressure
below the centroid. (WHY?) ___________
increases with depth.
___________________

Forces on Curved Surfaces


Horizontal component
Vertical component
Tensile Stress in pipes and spheres

Forces on Curved Surfaces:


Horizontal Component
What is the horizontal component of
pressure force on a curved surface equal
teams
to?
(Prove it!)
The center of pressure is located using
the moment of inertia technique.
net
The horizontal component of pressure
force on a closed body is _____.
zero

Forces on Curved Surfaces:


Vertical Component
What is the magnitude of the
vertical component of force on the
cup?

F = pA

p = gh
F = ghr2 =W!

What if the cup had sloping sides?


What if the cup bottom were a hemisphere?

Forces on Curved Surfaces:


Vertical Component
The vertical component of pressure force
on a curved surface is equal to the
weight of liquid vertically above the
curved surface and extending up to the
surface where the pressure is equal to the
reference pressure.

Example: Forces on Curved


Surfaces
Find the resultant force (magnitude and location)
on a 1 m wide section of the circular arc.

FV = W1 + W2
= (3 m)(2 m)(1 m) + (2 m)2(1 m)
= 58.9 kN + 30.8 kN
= 89.7 kN
FH = p c A
= (4 m)(2 m)(1 m)
= 78.5 kN

3m
water
2m

W1
2m
W2

Example: Forces on Curved


Surfaces
The vertical component line of action goes through Expectation???
A
the centroid of the volume of water above the surface.

Take moments about a vertical


axis through A.
4R
4(2 m)
3
x c FV (1 m)W1
W2
3
4(2 m)
(1 m) 58.9 kN
30.8 kN
3
xc
89.7 kN

3m
water

W1
2m

2m

W2

= 0.948 m (measured from A) with magnitude of 89.7 kN

Example: Forces on Curved


Surfaces

pc ghc

a2
yR
12hc
hc 4 m

yR 0.083m

3m

water

b
I xc a 2

A 12

W1
2m

2m

W2

y
x

The location of the line of action of the horizontal


component is given by
g I xc
cosq = 1
yR
cos
pc A

4.083 m

0.948 m

Example: Forces on Curved


Surfaces

78.5 kN horizontal
89.7 kN vertical
119.2 kN resultant

Cylindrical Surface Force Check


0.948 m

C
1.083 m

89.7kN

All pressure forces pass


through point C.
The pressure force applies
no moment about point C.
The resultant must pass
through point C.

78.5kN

(78.5kN)(1.083m) - (89.7kN)(0.948m) = ___


0

Curved Surface Trick


Find force F required to open
the gate.
The pressure forces and force F
pass through O. Thus the hinge
force must pass through O!
Hinge carries only horizontal
W1 + W2
forces! (F = ________)

water

3m

W1

O
F

2m
W2

Tensile Stress in Pipes:


High Pressure

g I xc
yR
cos
pc A

pressure center is approximately at the center


of the pipe

per unit length


(pc is pressure at
FH = 2rp
___c
center of pipe)
rpc
T = ___
rpc/e
= ____

(e is wall thickness)

T1
r

FH
T2

is tensile stress in pipe wall


How does pipe wall thickness change with diameter?

rpc

tensile stress

Tensile Stress in Pipes:


Low pressure
pressure center can be
calculated using moments
2pcr
FH = ___
T2 __
> T1
g I xc
yR
cos
pc A
g d2
yR
pc 12

T1

I xc d

A 12

FH

r
T2

Projected area

Use moments to calculate T1 and T2.

d
b

Solution Scheme
Determine total acceleration vector (a) including
acceleration of gravity
Locate centroid of the surface
Draw y axis with origin at the centroid (projection of
total acceleration vector on the surface)
Set pressure datum equal to pressure on the other side of
the surface of interest
Determine the pressure at the centroid of the surface
Calculate total force (pcA)
Calculate yR

Static Surface Forces Summary


Forces caused by gravity (or
total acceleration on submerged surfaces
_______________)
horizontal surfaces (normal to total
acceleration) FR pc A
inclined surfaces (y coordinate has origin at
g I xc
yR
cos
centroid) FR pc A
pc A
curved surfaces

Horizontal component FR pc A A is projected area


Vertical component (________________________)
weight of fluid above surface

Questions
Why does FR = Weight?

What
is p?Side view
FR

Why can we use projection to calculate


the horizontal component?
How can we calculate FR based on
pressure at the centroid, but then say the
line of action is below the centroid?

Review
How do the equations change if the surface is
the bottom of an aquarium on a jet aircraft
during takeoff? (accelerating at 4 m/s2)
p a

h
c
y

FR pc A

atotal
ajet

Use total acceleration


atotal hc
pc =_____

Where is y?
= angle between atotal
atotal I xc
y
cos
R

pc

Alternate
method?
and y

The jet is pressurized

Circular Port
P=-2 kPa

0.5 m
0.5 m

Equivalent problem
air

= 800 kg/m3
= 1000 kg/m3

1m

Buoyant Force
The resultant force exerted on a body by a
static fluid in which it is fully or partially
submerged
The projection of the body on a vertical plane is
zero
always ____.
(Two surfaces cancel, net horizontal force is zero.)

The vertical components of pressure on the top


different
and bottom surfaces are _________

Buoyant Force: Thought


Experiment
Place a thin wall balloon filled
with water in a tank of water.
What is the net force on the
zero
balloon? _______
Does the shape of the balloon
no
matter? ________
What is the buoyant force on
of water
the balloon? Weight
_____________
displaced
_________

FB

FB g

Buoyant Force: Line of Action


The buoyant force acts through the centroid
of the displaced volume of fluid (center of
buoyancy)
Vxc x dV

Moment of resultant = sum of moments of


distributed forces

1
xc
V

Definition of centroid of volume

xdV

= volume
d= distributed force
xc = centroid of volume

If is constant!

Buoyant Force: Applications


Using buoyancy it is
possible to
determine:
_______
Weight of an object
_______
Volume of an object
_______________
Specific gravity of
an object

F1

1 >2

F2

Force balance
F1 V 1 W

F2 V 2 W

Buoyant Force: Applications


F1 V 1 W

F2 V 2 W

Equate weights
F1 V 1 F2 V 2
V 1 2 F2 F1
F2 F1
V
1 2

(force balance)
Equate volumes
W F1 W F2
V

1
2
W 2 F1 2 W 1 F2 1
F1 2 F2 1
W
2 1

Suppose the specific weight of the first fluid is zero


F1 F2
V
2

W F1

Rotational Stability of
Submerged Bodies
A completely
submerged body
is stable when its
center of gravity
below
is
_____ the
center of
buoyancy

B
G

Buoyant Force (Just for fun)


A sailboat is sailing on Cayuga Lake. The
captain is in a hurry to get to shore and
decides to cut the anchor off and toss it
overboard to lighten the boat. Does the water
level of Cayuga Lake increase
----------- or decrease?
________
Why?_______________________________
The anchor displaces less water when
____________________________________
it is lying on the bottom of the lake than it
____________________
did when in the boat.

End of Lecture
What didnt you understand so far about
statics?
Ask the person next to you
Circle any questions that still need answers

End of Lecture Question


Write an equation for
the pressure acting on
the bottom of a conical
tank of water.
Write an equation for
the total force acting on
the bottom of the tank.
(not including forces
from the side walls)

d1
Side view
L

d2

Gates

Gates

Radial Gates

Gates at Itaipu:
Why this shape?