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Chapter 6

Overcoming Resistance to
Change

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 1

Learning Objectives
Identify forces that cause resistance to
change.
Recognize strategies that can increase
motivation to change.
Diagnose forces driving and resisting
organization change.
Experience reactions to a change
situation.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 2

Change and Reinvent (part 1 of 2)


Many organizations being forced to
change radically.
Organizations face major challenge in
managing change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 3

Change and Reinvent (part 2 of 2)


Organizations need capacity to adapt
quickly.
People focus of most serious
challenges.
Large scale changes incur significant
problems and challenges.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 4

Changes on Personal Level


Set patterns of behavior.
Defined relationships with others.
Work procedures and job skills.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 5

Changes on Organizational
Level

Policies.
Procedures.
Organization structures.
Manufacturing processes.
Work flows.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 6

Life Cycle of Resistance to


Change (part 1 of 5)
Response to change tends to move
through 5 phases:
Phase 1: Change Introduced.
Only few people who see need for change.
Resistance appears massive.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 7

Life Cycle of Resistance to


Change (part 2 of 5)
Phase 2: Forces Identified.
Forces for and against change identified.
Change more thoroughly understood.
Novelty of change tends to disappear.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 8

Life Cycle of Resistance to


Change (part 3 of 5)
Phase 3: Direct Conflict.
Direct conflict and showdown between
forces.
This phase probably means life or death to
change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 9

Life Cycle of Resistance to


Change (part 4 of 5)
Phase 4.
Remaining resistance seen as stubborn.
Possibility resisters will mobilize to shift
balance of power.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 10

Life Cycle of Resistance to


Change (part 5 of 5)
Phase 5.

Resisters to change are as few and as


alienated as were advocates in first
phase.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 11

Leading Change: Major Factors


Affecting Success of Change
Advocates of
change.
Degree of
change.
Time frame.

Impact on
culture.
Evaluation of
change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 12

Figure 6.1
Change Factors

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 13

Advocates of Change
Person leading change often most
important force for change.
OD practitioners may be brought in to
assist.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 14

Degree of Change
Is change minor or major?
The greater the change, the more
difficult to implement.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 15

Time Frame
Greater chance of success if:
Change is gradual.
Longer time frame.

Some organizations only chance for


survival depends on:
Radical change.
Introduced swiftly.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 16

Impact on Culture
The greater the impact on existing
culture:
The greater the resistance and
The more difficult it is to implement
change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 17

Evaluation on Culture
Standards of performance developed.
Designed to measure:
Degree of change and
Impact on organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 18

A Change Model (part 1 of 5)


Two major considerations in
organizational change are:
Degree of change.
Impact on organizations culture.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 19

Figure 6.2
Change Model

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 20

Change Model (part 2 of 5)


Quadrant 1
Minor change, low impact on culture.
Resistance at lowest level.
Success most probable.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 21

Change Model (part 3 of 5)


Quadrant 2
Minor change, high impact on culture.
Some resistance can be expected.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 22

Change Model (part 4 of 5)


Quadrant 3
Major change, high impact on culture.
Some resistance likely.
Good management can probably
overcome resistance.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 23

Change Model (part 5 of 5)


Quadrant 4
Major change, high impact on culture.
Greatest resistance can be predicted.
Probability of success low.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 24

Driving Forces Toward


Acceptance of Change
Driving forces:
Anything that increases organization to
implement change.
Vary in intensity depending on situation.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 25

Driving Forces for Change


(part 1 of 5)

Dissatisfaction with present situation.


External pressures toward change.
Momentum toward change.
Motivation by management.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 26

Driving Forces for Change


(part 2 of 5)

Dissatisfaction with present situation.


Intense dissatisfaction with present
situation provides motivation.
Some members are aware of need for
improvement.
Being average not good enough.
Stockholder demands for change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 27

Driving Forces for Change


(part 3 of 5)

External pressures toward change.


Forces outside of organization (example:
market conditions).
New technologies and methods
implemented to remain competitive.
New legal requirements.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 28

Driving Forces for Change


(part 4 of 5)

Momentum toward change.


Once change underway, forces push it
along.
Those involved tend to become committed.
Money previously already spent on change
provides motivation.
Change in one part of organization may set
off chain reaction.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 29

Driving Forces for Change


(part 5 of 5)

Motivation by management.
Manager or advocate of change becomes
motivating force.
Top managements encouragement can
motivate change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 30

Restraining Forces Blocking


Change (part 1 of 2)

Uncertainty regarding change.


Fear of unknown.
Disruption of routine.
Loss of benefits.
Threat to security.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 31

Restraining Forces Blocking


Change (part 2 of 2)

Threat to position power.


Redistribution of power.
Disturb existing social networks.
Conformity to norms and culture.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 32

Driving Forces & Restraining


Forces Act in Tandem
Effective change programs:
Increase driving forces.
Decrease restraining forces.

Force-field analysis model useful to


view driving and restraining forces.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 33

Strategies to Increase
Motivation (part 1 of 2)

Climate conducive to change.


Clearly articulated vision.
Effective communications.
Leadership of managers.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 34

Strategies to Increase
Motivation (part 2 of 2)

Participation of members.
Reward systems.
Negotiation, agreement, and politics.
Power strategies.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 35

OD Application
Five Phases of
Resistance to Change
Change tends to move through a life
cycle.
Environmental movement over 40 years
illustrates phases.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 36

PHASE 1 Change Introduced.


Environmental movement began to grow in
1970s.
The forces for change were small.

PHASE 2 Forces Identified.


By 1980s forces for and against change
became organized.

PHASE 3 Direct Conflict.


Clean Air Act of 1990 brought opposing
groups into direct confrontation.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 37

PHASE 4 Residual Resistance.


Opposing groups continued to have
conflicts.
Resistance became less intense through
first decade of 2000s.

PHASE 5 Change Established.


World generally sees environmental
responsibility as a necessity.
Disagreements persist in how to implement
changes.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 38

OD Application
The World of Business
Globalization has occurred for hundreds
of years.
Recently experienced exponential
growth.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 39

Reasons for increase include:


Improvements in communications and
transportation.
More efficient global banking systems.
Surpluses in capital for some countries.
Worldwide lowering of trade barriers.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 40

Multinational companies (MNCs) based


all over the world.
MNCs emerging in larger numbers in
developing countries.

MNCs help create markets by


employing workers worldwide.
Trend for MNCs to blend into countries
and adapt local culture.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 41

Table 6.1
Fortune Top Global 500 Companies

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 42

Keywords and Concepts


Driving forces.
Increases client system to implement
proposed change.

Employee stock ownership plan.


Grant stock or stock options to broad
section of employees.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 43

Gain sharing.
Reward system that recognizes value of
specific group.

Knowledge-based pay.
Reward system based on the knowledge or
skills of workers.

Open-book management.
Employees use financial records to
analyze problems.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 44

Profit-sharing.
Uses the performance of business to
calculate employee pay.

Restraining forces.
Forces that block implementation of change
program.

Vision.
Describes desired future state for
organization.
Can provide members with mental image of
future.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 45

OD Skill Simulation 6.1


Downsizing in Enigma Co.
Purpose.
Examine how you attempt to influence
others.
Understand relationship between
acceptance and rejection of change.
Consider how change situations are
influenced.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 46

OD Skill Simulation 6.2


Driving and Restraining
Forces
Purpose.
Help you further understand the diagnosis
process.
Experience overcoming resistance to
change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 47

OD Skill Simulation 6.3


Strategies for Change
Purpose.
Experience a change situation where you
attempt to change another person.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 48

Preparations for Next Chapter


Read Chapter 7.
Prepare for OD Skill Simulation 7.1.
Complete Step 1.
Prior to class, form teams of eight
members and select roles.

Read and analyze Case: The Farm


Bank.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 49

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 8 th edition


Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter 6
Slide 50