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Fluid Mechanics - II

Chapter 11

Analysis of
Compressible Flow
.
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Introduction

So far we mainly studied incompressible flow analysis. Any study of fluid mechanics
would, however, be incomplete without a brief introduction to compressible flow
behavior
Fluid compressibility is vital in numerous engineering applications of fluid
mechanics. For example, the measurement of high-speed flow velocities requires
compressible flow theory. Many aircraft fly fast enough to involve a compressible
flow field.
The variation of fluid density for compressible flows requires attention to density
and other fluid property relationships. The fluid equation of state, often unimportant
for incompressible flows, is vital in the analysis of compressible flows. Also,
temperature variations for compressible flows are usually significant and thus the
energy equation is important
The changes in density for Compressible flows, makes the use of Bernoulli's Eqn
(and subsequently building upon it) is not applicable
For simplicity, in this introductory study of compressibility effects we mainly consider
the steady, one-dimensional, constant (including zero) viscosity, compressible flow
of an ideal gas
In this chapter, one-dimensional flow refers to flow involving uniform distributions of
fluid properties over any flow cross-section area
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Ideal Gas Relations

Before we can proceed to study compressible flow equations, we need to become more
familiar with the fluid we will work with, the ideal gas.
Recall Thermodynamics-I Course, (we must Specifically recall how to evaluate ideal
gas property changes). The summary of eqns used as basics are produced below:
Eqn of State of Ideal Gas ; P = RT where R=/MGAS
Specific Heats :
u
h
Cv

and

v
C P Cv R

CP

Specific Internal Energy & Enthalpy


(u , h)
T
u 2 u1 Cv dT
and
2

T1

T2

h2 h1 C P dT
T1

Specific Heat Ratio (k) some books uses symbol


k

CP
Cv

.
Change in Entropy

CP

s s2 s1 Cv ln

Rk
and
k 1

Cv

R
k 1

T2

T
P
R ln 1 C P ln 2 R ln 2
T1
2
T1
P1

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Ideal Gas Relations


s s2 s1 0

Isentropic Flows: S = 0
Cv ln

T2

T
P
R ln 1 C P ln 2 R ln 2
T1
2
T1
P1

P2 T2

P1 T1

Pv k

k
k 1


2
1

P
cons tan t
k

Definition of Ideal Gas and Perfect Gas !!!!


Go through Ex 11.1 and 11.2, to check your existing knowledge and
revise if needed

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Mach Number and Speed of Sound

We have studied the definition of Mach Number in Chap. 1 & 7 as a dimensionless


property
Its an important property for study of compressible flows as all flow properties can be
expressed as a function of Mach Number. We know that M = V/c, where c is the
speed of sound in the fluid under study
The expression of c can be derived by applying Continuity & Momentum Eqns to a
weak wave traveling in a fluid as
P
c

For Isentropic Flows :

For Ideal Gas :


For any Fluid :

c kRT

Ev

where Ev is Fluids bulk modulus of elasticity

See values of c given in Tables B1 to B4 for water and air for various temperatures
Example 11.3
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Categories of Compressible Flow

In Section 3.8.1, we learned that the effects of compressibility become more


significant as the Mach number increases. For example, the error associated with
using V2/2 in calculating the stagnation pressure of an ideal gas increases at
larger Mach numbers
From Fig. 3.24

We can conclude that incompressible flows can only occur at low Mach numbers
Flow is generally considered to be incompressible when M < 0.3
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Categories of Compressible Flow /

Contd.

Variation Fluid Properties with Mach Number

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Categories of Compressible Flow /

Contd.

Experience has also demonstrated that compressibility can have a large


influence on other important flow variables
For example, in Fig. 11.2 the variation of drag coefficient with Reynolds
number and Mach number is shown for air flow over a sphere

.
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Categories of Compressible Flow /

Contd.

Compressibility effects can be of considerable importance


To further illustrate some curious features of compressible flow, a simplified example is
considered. Imagine the emission of weak pressure pulses from a point source
These pressure waves are spherical and expand radially outward from the point source at the
speed of sound

.
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

Categories of Compressible Flow /

Contd.

The discussion done so far suggests that Fluid Flows are categorized
as:
Incompressible flow: M < 0.3 Unrestricted, nearly symmetrical and
instantaneous pressure communication
Compressible subsonic flow: 0.3 < M <1.0 Unrestricted but noticeably
asymmetrical pressure communication
Compressible supersonic flow: M > 1.0 Formation of Mach wave;
pressure communication restricted to zone of action

In addition to the above-mentioned categories of flows, two other


regimes are commonly referred to are:
Transonic flows : 0.8 < M < 1.2 : Modern aircraft are mainly powered by gas
turbine engines that involve transonic flows
Hypersonic flows: M > 5 : When a space shuttle reenters the earths
atmosphere, the flow is hypersonic. Future aircraft may be expected to operate
from subsonic to hypersonic flow conditions

Example 11.4

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

10

Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gas

We now are ready to study further details about the steady, one-dimensional, isentropic flow of
an ideal gas with constant specific heat values C P and Cv.
Isentropic Flow means :
Adiabatic (No Heat Interactions)
No shaft work (Work =0)
Frictionless Flow (Viscosity =0 or inviscid flow) or Reversible Flow

Also for simplicity we consider Ideal Gas flow which is one-dimensional and steady (d/dt =0
Specific Heat are constant, and velocity & fluid property changes in the stream wise direction
only ; i.e. flow properties at any section are uniformly distributed )
For Isentropic flows (adiabatic and reversible flows), the changes in Entropy are always ZERO (
s = 0 )
Stagnation (Total) Properties remains2 constant for the whole domain of flow, i.e.
u
h0 = constant, where
h0 h
constant
2
For perfect gas; h0 = Cp To = constant
T0 =constant (T02 =T01)
P0 =constant (P02 =P01) etc.

On a T-S diagram (or h-S diagram) the Static and Stagnation properties are reflected by a
straight line
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

11

Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gas

/Contd.

Incompressible Flows:
Stagnation Pressure; P0 = P + V2 + Z
(3.15)
Velocity for Z=constant; V= [ 2(P0 P)/ ]1/2

Compressible Flows:
The above relations are not valid a DENSITY is
not constant and we express above relations as
function of Mach Number ( such expression we
touched in Chapter 3; see eqn 3,25 )

The graphical presentation of relations between


Total & Static Properties are shown on a T-S
diagram valid for both; Compressible &
Incompressible Flows
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

12

Effect of Variations in Flow Area

Continuity Eqn ; uA= constant in differential form can be written as

We would like to see how the flow velocity changes with cross sectional area only,
i.e. eliminating and d terms from above Eqn

Using isentropic relations and definition of Velocity of Sound, the term d/ can be
expressed as f(u,M)2 as given below

d du dA

u
A

[11.43]

d
u du
du
2
M 2

a u
u

Substituting this Eqn into 11.43 we get :


du
1
dA

2
u M 1 A

[11.48]

This Eqn called the area-velocity relation and provides us with a lot of very useful
information about flow speeds with changing Area

Similarly we can derive density change eqn as


d
M 2 dA

M 2 1 A

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

[11.49]
13

Effect of Variations in Flow Area

11.48

/Contd.

For subsonic flow (M < 1):


dA
du
2

1
The term M2 1 is negative. So Eqn 10.25 becomes
A
u
dA/A - du/u
Therefore, for subsonic flow, to increase the velocity we must have a convergent duct, and to
decrease the velocity we must have a divergent duct as illustrated in Fig 10.7 below
For supersonic flow (M > 1):
The term M2 1 is positive. So Eqn 10.25 becomes
dA/A du/u
Therefore, for supersonic flow, to increase the velocity we must have a divergent duct, and to
decrease the velocity we must have a convergent duct as illustrated in Fig 10.7 below

dA
A
M 2 1
By re-arranging Eqn 11-.48, we get
[11.50]
du
u
For M =1, Eq. 11.50 requires du/dA =0, which implies that the area associated with M=1 is either
a minimum or a maximum amount
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

14

Effect of Variations in Flow Area

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

/Contd.

15

Convergent Divergent (CD) Duct

For the steady flow of an ideal gas, it can be argued that the sonic condition ( M = 1 ) can be attained
in a converging-diverging duct at the minimum area location
This minimum area location is often called the throat of the CD duct
Furthermore, to achieve supersonic flow from a subsonic state in a duct, a converging-diverging area
variation is necessary
We will now develop equations to determine how important flow properties vary in a isentropic steady
flow in ducts
It can be done in different several approaches. The Text Book uses Isentropic Relations developed
earlier combined with eqn. of motion, enthalpy of ideal gas and eqn. of state
We will use another simpler approach using following (already studied) eqns:

Enthalpy of Ideal Gas ; dh =2 cpdT

V
cons tan t
Total Enthalpy ;
2
R
cp
Specific Heat for Ideal Gas ; 1
h0 h

c p 1

Mach no ; M=V/a V2 = M2 a2 where a RT


1
1
V2
M 2RT
hM2
C PT h M 2
h
h0 h
h
2

2
2
1 2

h0 h 1
M
2

Dividing both sides by CP we get ;

1 2

T0 T 1
M
[11.56]2

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

16

Convergent Divergent Duct /Contd.

Using Isentropic relations of an Ideal Gas,


prime properties of the gas as indicated below :
1 2

1 2

[11.59]
T0 T 1
M
P0 P 1
M

get the equations for all

1 2

0 1
M
2

[11.60]

p0 0
T 1

0
pand Eqn.
11.56,
T we

1
1

Recall that, the difference in pressure across a duct is the flow deriving potential. If inlet of duct
is connected to a reservoir, then reservoir pressure and temperature are Total Pressure & Total
Temperature (Stagnation Properties) for the system, which remains constant for Isentropic flow
The more is the pressure difference higher would be mach number

See T-S diagram


Also we know that

Thus

or

M=0

1 2

T0 T 1
M
2

1 2
1 2

T0 T1 1
M 1 T2 1
M2
2
2

1 2

M1
1
T2
2

1 2
T1
M2
1
2

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

M+ve

M+ve

17

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

18

Chocked Flow ( M =1 ) or * Condition

As we discussed, the more is the pressure difference (say P 0 - Pe ), higher would be


mach number
If we keep increasing Total pressure (or reduce the outlet pressure; back pressure),
then Velocity (or Mach Number) in a convergent duct will keep increasing reach till
M reaches Unity ( M = 1 )
This condition is called chocked duct (or chocking condition; * ), further increase
in pressure difference, the flow will remain at chocking conditions (no increase in
flow rate or Mach no in the duct)
The isentropic eqns [11.56,11.59 & 11.60] for chocked conditions ( * conditions )
thus become)
1
1
1
1

0
1
1 1

0
0

, * , 1
1

*
2
*
2
T

for = 1.4

T0 , 1
0 1 1

1
.
2

1.5774

T* 2
* 2
1
P0 1
P*

1.893 or
0.528

P* 2
P0

Examples 11.5 to 11.7.

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

19

Chocked State

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

20

Compressible Nozzle Chocking


Consider the duct of Fig 10.9. The area, Mach number, and velocity at the
throat are denoted by A*, M*, u*. At any other section of the duct they
are A, M, u

Apply the equation


of continuity between sections A and A* :
u A uA
[10.26]
Since u* = a* , this equation becomes

[10.27] A u a 0 a
A
u
u
0 u
where is the stagnation density and is constant in isentropic flow
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

21

Compressible Nozzle Flow /Contd.

1
We also have
the following
relations from chapter 8:

2 1

0 1
0
1 2
1
M

2

u

a

1
1

[10.28]
[10.29]

1
2
1
2

M2

1 M 2

[10.30]

2
Squaring Eqn2 10.27 gives

Substituting for each of the ratios on the right hand


side of this equation from Eqns
1
2
(10.28) to (10.30)
and
2
A
1 simplifying,
gives
1
1

0 a

A

A

M2
1

M 1
2

2

[10.32]

This is called the Area-Mach Number Relation ; M = f (A/A*). In other words,


the Mach number at any location in the duct is a function of the ratio of the local
duct area to the sonic throat area, (remember A > A* always)
Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

22

Compressible Nozzle Flow

/Contd.

The results for A/A* as a function of M, obtained from (10.32) are available in
tabular form (App. A)

For subsonic values of M, the area ratio A/A* decreases as M increases; i.e., the
duct converges
For supersonic values of M, the area ratio A/A* increases as M increases; i.e., the
duct diverges
The table also shows the double-valued nature of Mach number as a function of
A/A*; for example, for A/A* = 2, we have either M = 0.31 or M = 2.2

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

23

10/24/15

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

24

10/24/15

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

25

The Convergent-Divergent Nozzle

We will now study the physics of the flow through a


convergent-divergent nozzle

CD Nozzle shown in Fig 10.10a have large area ratio


at the inlet Ai /A*, and that the flow at the inlet is fed
from a large gas reservoir. The flow is sonic at the
throat; hence M = 1 and At = A*. ( Recall *
properties ratios; Eqns 8.44-46) ; P*/P0 =0.5283

The reservoir pressure and temperature are p0 and


T0 respectively and are constant

The area distribution A = A(x) is specified; so the


area ratio A /A* is known at every station along the
nozzle

Subscript t denotes conditions at throat, and e ,


conditions at the exit

Assume that we have an isentropic expansion of the


gas through the nozzle to a supersonic Mach number
Me = Me,6 at the exit (the reason for the subscript 6
will become clear later). Lets say the corresponding
exit pressure is pe,6
Fluid Mechanics
Chapter
II10: Chapter 11

26

Isentropic Nozzle Flow

Area-Mach Number Relation reflect TWO possible solution in divergent passage


after the throat, (if there are no SHOCKS waves or flow remains Isentropic)

Examples 11.8 to 11.10


Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

28

Non-Isentropic Flows of Ideal Gas

Constant Area Duct Flow


Adiabatic Constant Area Duct Flow with Friction ( Fanno Flow )
Frictionless Constant Area Duct Flow with Heat Transfer ( Rayleigh Flow)

Flow having Normal Shocks

Flow having Oblique Shocks (2-D Flow)

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

29

Assignments / Self Study

Examples; 11.1 to 11.10


Do at least 15 (from 11.1 to 11.47) problems
from Chapter 11 of text book

Fluid Mechanics II : Chapter 11

30