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# Electronics

## Principles & Applications

Seventh Edition

Charles A. Schuler
Chapter 8

Large-Signal Amplifiers
(student version)

McGraw-Hill

INTRODUCTION
Amplifier Class
Class A
Class B
Class AB
Class C
Class D

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## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Dear Student:
This presentation is arranged in segments. Each segment
is preceded by a Concept Preview slide and is followed by a
Concept Review slide. When you reach a Concept Review
slide, you can return to the beginning of that segment by
clicking on the Repeat Segment button. This will allow you
to view that segment again, if you want to.

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Concept Preview
Efficiency is most important in power amplifiers.
Poor efficiency means that much of the input power is
converted to heat.
A class A amplifier conducts for the entire signal cycle and
has the lowest efficiency.
A class B amplifier conducts for only half of the signal
cycle.
A class C amplifier conducts for less than half of the signal
cycle.
A class D amplifier switches between cutoff and saturation.

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High efficiency
means
less
HEAT
= PIN
- Pheat.
OUT

Input signal

Power
Amplifier

PIN
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Output signal
POUT

Efficiency =

POUT
PIN

## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Efficiency
The dc power supplied to an amplifier is PIN
= VCC x IDC
Efficiency = POUT/PIN x 100%
The maximum efficiency for Class A
amplifiers with a dc collector resistance and
a separate load resistance is 25%.
Class A is usually not acceptable when watts
of power are required.

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IC

IC

B
t

t
IC

IC
ISAT

C
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D
t

## Class and efficiency quiz

If POUT = 100 W and PIN = 200 W, the
50%
efficiency is _________.
The efficiency of an ideal amplifier is
__________.
100%
When efficiency is poor, too much of the input
is converted to ________.
heat
An amplifier that conducts for the entire cycle
is operating Class _______.
A
An amplifier that conducts for half the cycle
is operating Class _______.
B
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## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Concept Review
Efficiency is most important in power amplifiers.
Poor efficiency means that much of the input power is
converted to heat.
A class A amplifier conducts for the entire signal cycle and
has the lowest efficiency.
A class B amplifier conducts for only half of the signal
cycle.
A class C amplifier conducts for less than half of the signal
cycle.
A class D amplifier switches between cutoff and saturation.

Repeat Segment
McGraw-Hill

## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Concept Preview
Class A amplifiers operate at the center of the load line
and have a large quiescent current flow.
Class B amplifiers operate at cutoff and have no
quiescent current flow.
Class B amplifiers are usually operated in push-pull
configurations.
Class B amplifiers have crossover distortion.
Class AB reduces crossover distortion.
Bridge amplifiers provide four times the output power
and eliminate the output coupling capacitor.

McGraw-Hill

## A large-signal amplifier can also be called a power amplifier.

This class A amplifier has a large quiescent collector current.

VCC
18 V
=
=
= 15 mA
1.2 k
RB
IC = x IB = 60 x 15 mA = 0.9 A

RL = 12

RB = 1.2 k

CC
McGraw-Hill

C
= 60
E

VCC = 18 V

VCC
18 V
ISAT =
=
= 1.5 A
12
RL

IC in A

## This is a Class A amplifier.

Q
25 mA

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

20 mA
mA
10 mA
5 mA

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
VCE in Volts

0 mA

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## This is a Class B amplifier.

Its quiescent power dissipation is zero.

IC in A

25 mA

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

20 mA
mA
Q
10 mA
5 mA

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
VCE in Volts

0 mA

PC = VCE x IC = 18 V x 0 A = 0 W
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0 2 4 6

Cl

20 mA

as
sB

25 mA

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

mA

10 mA
5 mA
8 10 12 14 16

0 mA
The collector signal
is too distorted for
linear applications.

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## The complementary-symmetry Class B

push-pull amplifier has acceptable
linearity for some applications.
+VCC

C
B

NPN

E
E
PNP

C
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PNP

NPN

Class B

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## Since the base-emitter junction potential

is 0.7 V, there is some crossover distortion.
+VCC

C
B

NPN

E
E
PNP

C
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## Crossover distortion is eliminated

by applying some forward bias
to the transistors (class AB).
+VCC

C
B

NPN

1.4 V

E
PNP

C
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## The quiescent power dissipation is moderate for class AB.

The efficiency is much better than class A.

IC in A

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
VCE in Volts
McGraw-Hill

## A bridge-tied load provides four times the output

power for a given supply voltage and load resistance.
Bridge amplifier

Single-ended amplifier
+VCC

+VCC

Cap. required

+VCC

Max. = VCC

Max. = 2 x VCC
RL

2
RL

Max.
Max.

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## Class A, B, and AB quiz

Class A amplifiers are biased to operate near
the ________ of the load line. center
Class B amplifiers have their Q-points at
____________.
cutoff
The conduction angle for class B is
_________.
180o
To reduce distortion, two class B transistors
are arranged in _____________. push-pull
Class AB is a solution for __________
distortion.
crossover
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## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Concept Review
Class A amplifiers operate at the center of the load line
and have a large quiescent current flow.
Class B amplifiers operate at cutoff and have no
quiescent current flow.
Class B amplifiers are usually operated in push-pull
configurations.
Class B amplifiers have crossover distortion.
Class AB reduces crossover distortion.
Bridge amplifiers provide four times the output power
and eliminate the output coupling capacitor.

Repeat Segment
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## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Concept Preview
Class C amplifiers are biased beyond cutoff for a small
conduction angle and high efficiency.
Class C amplifiers used tuned tank circuits to reduce
distortion in RF applications.
Class C amplifiers cannot be used in wideband applications
like audio.
Class D amplifiers switch between cutoff and saturation for
very high efficiency.
Class D amplifiers operate at a relatively high switching
frequency and often use PWM.
Class D can be used in audio applications.

McGraw-Hill

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

AB

0 2 4 6

8 10 12 14 16 18

## The class of an amplifier

is determined by the bias
which establishes the Q-point.
Class C is established by reverse
biasing the base-emitter junction.
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Conduction Angles
& theoretical max. efficiencies:

Class A = 360o
Class B = 180o
Class AB 200o
Class C
90o

50 %*
78.5 %
(between A & B)
100 %

## *Class A amplifiers are seldom driven to

maximum output and typically provide much
less efficiency.
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## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Class C amplifier
VCC
Tank circuit
C
CC

B
RB
VBB

The transistor is
off for most of
the input cycle
and the conduction
angle is small.

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0.7 V
VBB

VBE waveform
Class C amplifier
waveforms
(with tank circuit)

0A

IC waveform

VCE waveform
Low VCE when IC is flowing
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## Class C amplifier with signal bias

VCC

C
CC

B
RB

The base-emitter
junction rectifies
the input signal
and charges CC.

## Signal bias increases when the input

signal increases in amplitude.
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IB = 0

Cutoff

IB > 0

IB >> 0

Saturation

Linear
(PC > 0)

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## A switch-mode amplifier uses a

rectangular input signal to drive the
transistor rapidly between cutoff and
saturation. The efficiency is very high.
They are also
called Class D
amplifiers.

B
RB

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C
E

## If the switching frequency is a good deal higher

than the signal frequency, a Class D amplifier is
capable of linear amplification. Pulse-width
modulation and a low-pass filter are often used.

PWM Signal

Input Signal

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PWM

LPF

## The low-pass filter rejects

the switching frequency.
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## Class C and D quiz

Class C amplifiers use _______ circuits to
restore sinusoidal signals.
tank
The base-emitter junction in a class C
amplifier is ________ biased. reverse
The theoretical maximum efficiency for
class C is ___________.
100%
Class D amplifiers are also known as
__________ amplifiers.
switch-mode
Class D amplifiers employ a varying dutycycle known as _________.
PWM
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## 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. All right

Concept Review
Class C amplifiers are biased beyond cutoff for a small
conduction angle and high efficiency.
Class C amplifiers used tuned tank circuits to reduce
distortion in RF applications.
Class C amplifiers cannot be used in wideband applications
like audio.
Class D amplifiers switch between cutoff and saturation for
very high efficiency.
Class D amplifiers operate at a relatively high switching
frequency and often use PWM.
Class D can be used in audio applications.

Repeat Segment
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REVIEW
Amplifier Class
Class A
Class B
Class AB
Class C
Class D

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