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SIMSIM PRODUCTION

Simsim plant

SIMSIM PRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
Sesame is an important oil-seed crop with
45-50% oil content.
The crop is believed to be originated from
the hotter and dry part of Mediterranean
region.

It is grown in Africa, Asia and parts of


Latin America for its edible seeds which
are source of sesame oil.

SIMSIM PRODUCTION
USES
Used as a substitute for olive oil
As a salad
cooking oil.

The oil is used in the manufacture of


margarine
Poorer grades oil is used manufacture of soap
and paints, and as a lubricant and illuminant.

It is used as a vehicle for medicinal drugs


and perfumes.

SIMSIM PRODUCTION
The production of sesame has expanded due to;
Increasing demand of its consumption by human
being.
Introduction of tolerant and resistant
Good market price
It offers more return for less cost (less risk) than other
crops.
Versatile crops that can be grown in dry arid regions.
It has unique attributes that can fit most cropping
systems.
It is an easy crop to consider producing because
equipment used for other crops can be used to grow
sesame.
It can also be used as animal feed.

DISTRIBUTION OF SISIM IN TANZANIA

The crop is distributed in several areas of


Tanzania such as
Ruvuma,
Mtwara,
Morogoro,
Lindi,
Tanga,
Dodoma.

OIL CROP RESEARCH INSTITUTES IN TANZANIA

Naliendele - Mtwara

Ilonga

- Kilosa

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION

Family...Pedaliacea
e
GenusSesamum
Species...tridicum
Botanical
name.Sesamum tridicum
Common name..Simsim.

BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CROP

It is an annual bush crop with 0.5m


to 2m in height.
It has a large tap root with a dense
surface mat of feeder roots.
It has erect stem of either square,
rectangular or wide flat shape.
Its stem color range from light green
to almost purple but is most often
dark green.

BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE CROP

Its seeds are small, very light and flat


often white, red, brown or black in color.

Its maturity starts at the base upward and


takes 90 to 100 days to mature after
sowing.

NB; All local varieties are dehiscent, ie,


their capsules split from the top
downwards

VARITIES OF SIMSIM

Morada
Local varieties
Naliendele 92
Ziada 94
Zawadi 94

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING GOOD SEEDS QUALITY

Genetically purity; ie true to type,


resistant.
Analytical purity; ie free from seed
weeds, debris, stones
High germination percentage
Health and viable
Free from diseases
Good growth and vigor
High production performance

SOURCES OF GOOD SEED QUALITY OF


SIMSIM IN TANZANIA

Oil crop research Institutes, eg


Ilonga-Kilosa and
Naliendele-Mtwara.
Seed Companies, eg
TANSEED

SELECTING OF SUITABLE SEEDS FOR PLANTING

Good and normal size and color

Avoid deformed seeds,

Avoid scratched and


bored(damaged) seeds

Avoid contaminated seeds

FIELD PREPARATION
Seedbed preparation

Because the seeds are so small and


the rate of growth during the early
phases is so slow, sesame seeds
require a seed bed with firm, fine
crumbs and sufficient moisture, in
order to ensure their rapid, uniform

Seedbed Preparation

However a rough seedbed is


preferable despite of the small size
of the seeds, this is because the fine
seedbeds are more likely to form
cap especial during the heavy
rainfall drops and thus hindering the
emergency of the seedlings.

SOWING
Time of sowing;

Simsim must be sown as early as


possible when long rain starts.

Example in Morogoro
Sow

seeds between Februarys to

March when soil temperature is


20C.

METHODS OF SOWING

Drilling

Dibbling

Broadcasting

QUIZ

Which one among of the three


methods is not suitable for local
farmers and commercial farmers?
Give two reasons to support your
answer.

SPACING

Branched varieties

Row to row : 75-100cm

Plant to plant: 10-15cm

(7515)cm

Seed rate: 6.5kg/ha or 2.5kg/Acre

SPACING
Non branched varieties

Row to row:35-45cm

Plant to plant: 8-10cm

(45 10)cm

Seed rate: 10-12kg/ha.

Seed and sand ratio


Seeds: sand ratio.
In order to have good and uniform
distribution of
Seedling or plants, sands must be mixed
with
Seeds.
The appropriate ratio between seeds and
sands
Used differ depending on the amount of
seeds to
required per ha.

THINNING

This is done two weeks after


emergency when the seedlings at
about 10-15cm tall.
In order to achieve an optimum crop
density, remove the weak and
diseased plants. Branching varieties
should be thinned out to 10 cm, or
definitely less than 15 cm distance
between the plants and 12-13cm for
non branched varieties.

FERTILIZATION

Normal fertilizers and manures are not


used in simsim production but if are to be
used 30-60 kg Nitrogen: 10-15 kg of
phosphate: 10-15 kg potash.
Split the fertilizer into 50:50 or 70:30
50

or 70% during land preparation but should


be one month before sowing.
50 or 30 as sidedressing at the beginning of
the flowering stage.

This is done afterbfirst weeding that is 45weeks after sowing.

FERTILIZATION

NPK kg /ha
.........................?
UREA kg/ha
...........................?
DAP kg/ha
..........................?
SA kg/ha
........................?

MAJOR PESTS IN SIMSIM


Weeds

Weeds are the unwanted plants found in


fields and gardens.
They compete with the crops for
nutrients, moisture, and sunlight which
can decrease the crop quality, higher the
production costs due to increase
cultivation and hand weeding, and
considerably reduce the crop yields.
They also serve as the alternate hosts of
insect/mite pests and diseases

Cultural Management Of Weeds.

Thorough land preparation,


example: by plowing and harrowing
During the seed bed preparation,
make sure that the seed bed is free
of weeds.
Place the fertilizer where the crop
has the access to it but the weeds
do not.
This allows the crop to be more
competitive with weeds.

Cultural Management Of Weeds.

Keep the surroundings of the farm free


of weeds, unless they are maintained
and intended as habitat for natural
enemies.
N.B; Do weeding 4-5 weeks after
sowing. The weeds are easier to control
on their earlier growing period.
If possible, do not let the weeds to
flower .
Remove them from the field before they
start to flower.

Insects.

Ants.
Aphids
Whiteflies
cut worm
sesame leaf roll
sesame-gall-wasp
Read their control measures from the notes

CROP ROTATION

Sesame is regularly planted after


cotton, corn, sorghum, peanuts,
alfalfa,soybeans, wheat, oats, onions,
and rye without any problems.
There have been successful rotations
with other vegetables.
It has been grown in the arable lang
because it requires a fertile soil.

MATURITY INDICES
The signs of maturities include the
followings:
Yellowing of the stems
Shed-off of its leaves
Yellowing of its pods from downward
upwards
90-110 days after planting.
stems tend to change from green to yellow
to red in color and the leaves will begin to
fall off. Physiological maturity normally
occurs 90 - 110 days after planting and
normally dries down in 130 - 160 days,
depending on variety and climatic condition

HAVERSITING

The harvesting starts when 75% of the


fruit capsules are ripened.
The crop dries above.
By using a sharp knife cut from the
ground level.
Make bundles and stalked upright for
drying. One week after harvesting, thrash
and winnow
the seeds.
The seeds for storage must have 10 %
moisture content,