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The digestive

system
The DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Alimentary tract composed of
organs, the primary function of
which is the ingestion, digestion and
absorption of nutrients
The DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Consists of the tube extending


from the mouth to the anus
together with the associated
organs- salivary glands, liver,
pancreas, gallbladder
The GIT

The tract is long,


fibromuscular tube lined
internally by specialized
epithelium for secretion
and absorption
The GIT
The wall is divided into
Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis layer (inner circular and
outer longitudinal)
and Serosa/adventitia
Fig. 16.2
GENERAL FUNCTIONS

Ingestion of food into the


mouth
Moves food along the
digestive tract
Mechanically digests the
food into small particles
GENERAL FUNCTIONS

Chemically digests the


food into simple
molecules
Absorbs nutrients into
the portal and lymphatic
circulation
The MOUTH
Extends from the lips to the
orophaynx
Initial digestion of
carbohydrates occurs here
Contains the teeth, tongue,
palate, salivary glands and
tonsils
Salivary glands
1. Parotid= secretes purely serous,
Stensen’s duct
2.Submandibular/submaxillay= secretes
mixed saliva, with Wharton’s duct
3. Sublingual= secretes mixed saliva,
with two ducts- duct of Rivinus and duct
of Bartholin
The Pharynx

Oropharynx is a
passageway of both
food and air
The Esophagus

Muscular tube extending from


the pharynx to the stomach
With upper esophageal
sphincter and lower
esophageal sphincter
The Esophagus

Function: to propel
food to the stomach
The Stomach
J-shaped dilatable part of the GIT
Located on the epigastric area
and right upper quadrant
With 3 parts:
1. Fundus

2. Body

3. Pylorus
Cells in the stomach
1. Mucus cells
2. Chief cells/principal
cells/Zymogenic cells
3. Parietal Cells
4. Argentaffin cells
Cells in the stomach

1. Mucus cells-
secrete mucus for
protection of the
mucosa
Cells in the stomach

2. Chief cells/principal
cells/Zymogenic cells
secrete Pepsinogen
needed for protein
digestion
Cells in the stomach

3. Parietal cells/Oxyntic
cells- secrete
Hydrochloric acid to
activate pepsinogen and
Intrinsic factor needed to
absorb Vitamin B12
Cells in the stomach

4. Argentaffin cells-
secrete Serotonin
Small intestine

Characteristics:
Provided with mesentery
Presence of villi
Presence of plicae circularis
Lined by simple columnar
Fig. 16.14
Parts of Small Intestine

1. DUODENUM- shortest part


2. Jejunum
3. Ileum- longest part
Parts of Small Intestine
Large intestine

Characteristics
Presence of haustra
Presence of taenia coli
Presence of appendices
epiploicae
Large intestine

Characteristics
No villi
With mesocolon on the
appendix, transverse
colon and sigmoid colon
Parts of the large
intestine
Cecum
Appendix
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid colon
rectum
Anus

The anal canal is the last


portion of the tract,
surrounded by an internal
and external anal sphincter
The Peritoneum

Serous membrane lining


the abdominal cavity
Parietal peritoneum-
abdominal wall
Visceral peritoneum-
visceral organs
Fig. 16.3
The Peritoneum

Retroperitoneal organs
are found posterior to the
peritoneum- kidney,
pancreas, duodenum,
ascending and
descending colon, rectum
Mesentery

This is a peritoneum
folded upon itself
extending from the
organ to the abdominal
wall
Blood supply of the GIT

Branches of the celiac


trunk
Left gastric artery
Hepatic artery
Superior mesenteric
artery
Accessory organs

Pancreas
A pistol-shaped organ both
an endocrine and exocrine
gland
Parts: head, body and tail
Ducts: major is Wirsung,
minor is Santorini
Accessory organ
Liver
Largest internal organ
Located on the right upper
quadrant
With right and left lobes
Functions to secrete bile
Liv er p hy sio logy a nd
Pat ho ph ysiolo gy
Normal Function Abnormality in function

1. Stores glycogen = Hypoglycemia

2. Synthesizes proteins = Hypo-proteinemia

3. Synthesizes globulins =Decreased Antibody formation


risk for INFECTION
4. Synthesizes Clotting factors = Bleeding tendencies

5. Secreting bile = Jaundice and pruritus

6. Converts ammonia to urea =Hyper-ammonemia

7. Stores Vitamims and =Deficiencies of Vit and min


minerals
8. Metabolizes estrogen = Gynecomastia, testes atrophy
Accessory organ
Gallbladder
Pear-shaped organ on the
right upper quadrant below
the liver
Parts: fundus, body and neck
Functions to store and
concentrate bile
PHYSIOLOGY
OF THE GIT
Movement

Mouth
Chewing or
mastication
Secretions

Mouth
Salivary secretions-
salivary amylase or ptyalin
begins the digestion of
carbohydrates
Movements
Mouth and esophagus: Deglutition
1. Voluntary phase- food bolus is
pushed by tongue to the pharynx
2. Pharyngeal phase- reflex action
3. Esophageal phase- peristaltic
waves moves the food towards the
stomach
Stomach movement

Mixing waves
Peristaltic
movements
Fig. 16.12
Secretions
Stomach
1. Mucus- by the mucus cells for
mucosal protection
2. HCL from parietal cells
3. Pepsinogen from chief cells
4. Intrinsic factor from parietal cells
5. Gastrin =a hormone from the antral G
cells
Secretions
Stomach
Digestion for lipids:
Gastric lipase

Digestion for proteins:


Pepsin

No enyme for carbohydrates


Regulation of stomach
secretions
1. Cephalic phase- stomach
secretions are initiated by
the sight, smell, thought
and taste of food
Regulation of stomach
secretions
2. Gastric phase-
secretions are produced
upon stomach distention
Regulation of stomach
secretions
3. Intestinal phase- acidic
chyme from the stomach
passes into the duodenum
causing inhibition of
gastric secretions
Small intestine:
movement
1. Segmental contraction
mixes food occurring over
short distance
2. Peristalsis propels food
all throughout the entire
intestine
Fig. 16.9
Small intestine:
secretions
1. Intestinal lipase for lipids
2. Dissacharidases from the
intestinal cells that complete
the digestion of carbohydrates
3. Peptidases from the intestinal
cells complete the digestion of
proteins
Fig. 16.22
Large Intestine:
secretion and movement
Mucus for mucosal
protection

Mass movement- short


peristaltic movement
Large Intestine:
secretion and movement
Defecation reflex- moves
the feces to the internal
anal sphincter, mediated
by the parasympathetic
nerves
Distention causes the
reflex
Liver secretion

Bile- aids in emulsifying


the fats
Pancreatic secretions

1. Bicarbonate- to
neutralize the acidic
chyme from the stomach
2. Pancreatic amylase- for
carbohydrate digestion
Pancreatic secretions

3. Pancreatic lipase- for fat


digestion
4. Trypsin and
chymotrypsin- for protein
digestion
End of GIT
THE URINARY SYTEM

The excretory system


consisting of the kidney,
ureters, urinary bladder and
urethra
Major functions

Eliminates wastes
Controls blood and fluid volume
Regulates acid-base balance
Regulates RBC production by
erythropoietin
The Kidney
Retroperitoneal organ surrounded
by capsule and fats
Right is lower than the left
The substance is composed of
renal cortex ( where nephrons are
located) and renal medulla
( where collecting ducts are
found)
The Nephron
Functional unit of the kidney that
produces urine by filtration
Composed of
 Efferent arteriole
 Glomerulus
 Afferent arteriole
 Bowman’s capsule
 Convoluted tubules- proximal, loop of
Henle and distal
Special cells in the
nephron
Juxtaglomerular cells-
secrete renin and
erythropoietin

Podocytes
Blood supply of the
kidney
• Renal artery- branch of the
abdominal aorta
• Renal vein- drains into the
inferior venal cava
Renal pelvis
Funnel-shaped expanded portion
of the ureter
Formed by the calyces
Collects urine from the kidney
The Ureter
Left and right
A long slender tube that propels
urine from the kidney to the
urinary bladder
With smooth muscles and
transitional epithelium
With innervations from the
sympathetic and parasympathetic
The urinary bladder
Hollow pyramid shaped organ located
in the pelvis
Lined with transitional epithelium
With thick detrusor muscles
Micturition reflex resulting from the
distension of the organ
Impulses are transmitted to the sacral
parasympathetic segments to initiate
urination
Fig. 18.17
Urethra
Tube extending from the urinary bladder
to the external urethral orifice
1 ½ inches in females
3 parts in Males
1. Prostatic urethra- most dilatable
2. Membranous urethra- least dilatable and
shortest
3. Penile urethra- longest
Renal Physiology
Urine formation
1. Urinary blood flow
2. Glomerular filtration
3. Tubular reabsorption
4. tubular secretion
Fig. 18.12
Fig. 18.13
Fig. 18.14
End of renal
The MALE Reproductive
system
Made up of organs, ducts and
glands whose function is to
produce spermatozoa and
androgens
Internal Male
reproductive organs
1. Testes
2. Ducts- epididymis, vas deferens
and ejacularoty duct
3. Glands- prostate and Cowper’s
4. Seminal vesicle
The testes
Male gonad housed in the
scrotum
Divided into lobules containing
tubules and cells
Sperm cells are produced in the
seminiferous tubules
Leydig cells secrete testosterone
Spermatogenesis
Begins during puberty
Occurs in the seminiferous tubules
Spermatogonia divides by MITOSIS
into primary spermatocytes
Primary spermatocytes divide by
MEOSIS to produce secondary
spermatocytes
Spermiogenesis

Maturation of sperm cells


Secondary spermatocytes
become spermatids and go
to the epididymis for
maturation into
spermatozoa
Ducts
1. Epididymis- coiled tube
2. Vas deferens- long tube from
the epididymis to the seminal
vesicle
3. Ejaculatory duct- formed by the
union of the vas deferens and
the duct of the seminal vesicle
Glands
1. Prostate gland- glandular and
muscular tissue produces likely,
slightly acidic fluid and contributes
20% of the semen
2. Seminal Vesicle- convoluted pouch,
secretes alkaline fluid and fructose
contributing to the bulk of the semen
3. Cowper’s glands- secrete mucus for
lubrication
Fig. 19.5a
External genitalia
1. Scrotum- two chambered sac
contains the testes
2. Penis- erectile tissue consists of
two corpora cavernosa and one
corpora spongiosa
With 3 parts- bulb, shaft and
glans
The semen
Mixture of glandular secretions
from the prostate and seminal
vesicle and spermatozoa from
the testes
Volume: 2.5-5 ml
Sperm count- 50-150 million per
ml
SEMEN:
 Is a thick whitish fluid ejaculated by the male during
orgasm, contains spermatozoa and fructose-rich
nutrients.
 During ejaculation, semen receives contributions of
fluid from
 Prostate gland
 Seminal vesicle
 Epididymis
 Bulbourethral gland
 Average pH = 7.5
 The average amount of semen released during
ejaculation is 2.5 -5 ml. It can live with in the
female genital tract for about 24 to 72 hours.
 (60-200 million/ml of ejaculation ave. of 400 million/
ejaculation )
 90 seconds- cervix
 5 minutes.- end of fallopian tube
THE FEMALE
reproductive system
Group of organs with the function
of production of ovum and sex
hormones
Parts of the
reproductive system
EXTERNAL INTERNAL
(vulva) 1. Ovary
1. Mons pubis
2. Fallopian
2. Labia majora tubes
3. Labia majora
3. Uterus
4. Clitoris
4. Vaginal canal
5. Hymen
6. Vestibule
The Internal organs
OVARY
 Firm almond
shaped organ
covered by the
peritoneum
 Two parts: cortex
and medulla
 CORTEX- follicles
are found
 Medulla-
connective tissue
The internal organs
Fallopian tubes
Bilateral ducts extends laterally from the
uterus
4 parts
1. Infundibulum- funnel shape, with fimbriae
2. Ampulla- widest part; usual site of
FERTILIZATION
3. Isthmus- narrowest part
4. Interstitial or Intramural- embedded in the
uterine wall
FUNCTION: Transport of ovum
Fig. 20.2
The Uterus
Pear-shaped organ with a cavity
3 main parts
1. Fundus- upper dome-shape part
2. Corpus or Body- broad part
3. Cervix- narrow lower part
 Isthmus- junction between the body and
the cervix
POSITION: Anteverted and Anteflexed
The Uterus
The uterine wall is made up of three
layers
1. Epimetrium- superficial part surrounded
by the perimetrium
2. Myometrium- thickest muscular part
3. Endometrium- inner layer
FUNCTION: Fetal development in
pregnancy
The endometrium
3 layers of the endometrium
1. Stratum Functionale
Stratum compactum
Stratum spongiosum

2. Stratum basale or germinativum


Uterine ligaments
Broad ligament
Round ligament
Cardinal ligament
Utero-sacral ligament
Fig. 19.8
Vaginal canal
Connects the cervix to the vestibule
Fibromuscular canal lined with
mucus and covered with hymen
The remnant of hymen is called
CARUNCULAE MYRTIFORMIS
Function: organ of copulation and
passageway of baby
External genitalia
1. Vestibule- space between the
labia minora
2. Pudendal cleft- space between the
labia majora
3. Clitoris- erectile tissue, homologue
of penis
External genitalia
4. Labia majora- thick fold of skin,
homologue of scrotum
5. Labia Minora- thin fold of skin devoid
of hairs
6. Mons pubis/veneris- elevated area
above the labia
Mammary gland
Modified sweat gland
Consists of glandular and adipose tissue
Estrogen for breast development
Progesterone for lobular development
Prolactin for milk production
Oxytocin for milk “let down”
PHYSIOLOGY of female
reproduction
1. Puberty
2. Menstruation
3. Menopause
Puberty
Begins with the onset of the first
menstruation= MENARCHE
GnRH (from hypothalamus)
Gonadotrophins (LH and FSH from
the ant pit) levels are increased
Tanner- states that the initial sign of
puberty in girls is breast
development
Fig. 19.11
Menstrual cycle
Cyclical changes in the uterus
controlled by hormones
Duration: 24-35 days
Changes in the 3 systems/organs:
1. Uterus uterine cycle
2. Ovary ovarian cycle
3. Hormone hormonal cycle
MENSTRUATION:
Menstrual cycle/ female reproductive
cycle- monthly discharge of blood from
the uterus occurring form puberty to
menopause wherein about 30-80 cc (60
cc ave.) of blood, epithelial cells and
mucus are being discharged
Maturation of Oocytes:
 first formed in utero - 5 to7 million;
 first 5 months in utero - 2 million immature
oocytes per ovary
 at birth - 2 million in BOTH ovaries
 7 yrs of age only - 500,000/ovary
 22y/o only - 300,000/ovary
 Reproductive age only - 300–400 oocytes
 Menopause - none
Fig. 19.14
The uterine cycle

Consists of 3 phases
• Menstrual phase
• Proliferative phase
• Secretory phase
OVARIAN cycle
Consists of three phases
1. Pre-ovulatory : follicular phase
2. Ovulatory phase
3. Post-ovulatory : Luteal phase
Uterine Cycle: Menstrual
phase
Day 1- day 5
First day of bleeding is the first
day of cycle
Stratum functionale (compactum
and spongiosum) is shed
Around 60 ml average!
Uterine cycle:
proliferative Phase
Day 5- day 14
Epithelial cells of functionale
multiply and form glands
Due to the influence of estrogen
Uterine cycle: Secretory
phase
Day 15- day 28
Endometrium becomes thicker and
glands secrete nutrients
Uterus is prepared for implantation
Due to progesterone
If no fertilization constriction
vessels menstruation
OVARIAN cycle
Consists of three phases
1. Pre-ovulatory : follicular phase
2. Ovulatory phase
3. Post-ovulatory : Luteal phase
Ovarian Cycle;
preovulatory/follicular
Variable in length: day 6- day 13
Dominant follicle matures and
becomes graafian follicle with
primary oocyte
FSH increases initially then
decreases because of estrogen
increase
Ovarian cycle: Ovulatory
phase
Day 14
Rupture of the graafian follicle
releasing the secondary oocyte
Due to the LH surge
MITTELSCHMERZ- pain during
rupture of follicle
OVARIAN cycle: Post-
ovulatory: luteal phase
Day 15- day 28
MOST CONSTANT 14 days after
ovulation
Corpus luteum secretes Progesterone
If no fertilization, corpus luteum will
become corpus albicans then
degenerate
Decreased estrogen and progesterone
Hormonal cycle

1. Menstrual phase
Decreased Estrogen, decreased
progesterone, decreased FSH and
decreased LH
2. Proliferative/ Pre-ovulatory phase
Increased FSH and Estrogen in
small amounts
Hormonal cycle
3. Ovulatory phase
Increased FSH, Increased LH
(surge) Increased Estrogen
4. Post ovulatory/luteal Phase
Increased Estrogen, increased
progesterone, decreased FSH
and LH
MENOPAUSE

Cessation of menstruation for at


least one year occurring at the
age of 45-52
Decreased estrogen and
progesterone
Increased FSH
End of reproductive