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Vorticity and Circulation

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Class 15

Two primary measures of rotation

in a fluid

The presentation illustrates the

concepts of vorticity and

circulation, and shows how these

concepts can be useful in

understanding fluid flows.

axis; Microscopic measure of rotation at

any point in the fluid

The vorticity is defined as the curl of the

velocity vector:

w=xV

associated vector vorticity, and the

whole fluid space may be thought of as being

threaded by vortex lines which are everywhere

tangent to the local vorticity vector.

local axis of spin of the fluid

particle at each point.

In two dimensions, the vorticity is

the sum of the angular velocities

of any pair of mutuallyperpendicular, infinitesimal fluid

lines passing through the point in

question

every line perpendicular to the axis

of rotation has the same angular

velocity: therefore the vorticity is

the same at every point, and is

twice the angular velocity.

Vorticity is related to the moment of

momentum of a small spherical fluid

particle about its own center of mass.

Inphysics,angular momentum,moment

of momentum, orrotational momentum

is avector quantity that represents the

product of a body'srotational inertia

androtational velocityabout a

particular axis.

The angular momentum of a system of

particles (e.g. a rigid body) is the sum

of angular moments of the individual

particles.

symmetry (e.g. the blades of a ceiling fan), the

angular momentum can be expressed as the

product of the body'smoment of inertia,(I), (i.e.

a measure of an object's resistance to changes in

its rotation rate) and itsangular velocity:

L=I

In this way, angular momentum is

sometimes described as the rotational

analog oflinear momentum.

compared with the radial distance to its

axis of rotation (planet orbiting in a circle

around theSun), the angular

momentum can be expressed as its

linear momentum,(mv), crossed by its

positionfrom the origin,(r). Thus, the

angular momentum(L)of a particle

with respect to some point of origin is:

r x mv

Angular momentum is

conservedin a system where

there is no net external

torque, and its conservation

helps explain many diverse

(various) phenomenas.

is used extensively in analyzing what is

calledcentral force motion.

If the net force on some body is directed

always toward some fixed point,

thecenter, then there is no torque on

the body with respect to the center, and

so the angular momentum of the body

about the center is constant.

explains the angular acceleration of an ice

skater as she brings her arms and legs

close to the vertical axis of rotation.

By bringing part of mass of her body closer

to the axis she decreases her body's

moment of inertia.

Because angular momentum is constant in

the absence of external torques, the

angular velocity (rotational speed) of the

skater has to increase.

An example of

angular momentum

conservation: A

spinning figure

skater reduces

her

moment of inerti

a

by pulling in her

arms, causing

her rotation rate

to increase.

with respect to a chosen origin is given by

L = mvr sin

or more formally by thevector product

L=rxp

The direction is given by theright hand rule

which would give (L) the direction out of the

diagram. For an orbit, angular momentum is

conserved, and this leads to one of

Kepler's laws. For a circular orbit, (L ) becomes

L = mvr

motionare threescientific lawsdescribing

orbital motion, each giving a description of the

motionofplanetsaround theSun.

Kepler's laws are:

Theorbitof everyplanetis anellipsewith the

Sun at one of the twofoci(crucial, important)

points.

Alinejoining a planet and the Sun sweeps out

equalareasduring equal intervals of time.

Thesquareof theorbital periodof a planet is

directlyproportionalto thecubeof the

semi-major axis of its orbit.

points1and2for the first planet

and1and3for the second planet. The

Sun is placed in focal point1.

(2) The two shaded

sectorsA1andA2have the same surface

area and the time for planet 1 to cover

segmentA1is equal to the time to cover

segmentA2.

(3) The total orbit times for planet 1 and

planet 2 have a ratio a13/2:a23/2.

defined as the product of the

moment of inertiaand the angular velocity.

It is analogous tolinear momentumand is

subject to the fundamental constraints of

theconservation of angular momentum

principle if there is no externaltorqueon

the object.

Angular momentum is avector quantity. It

is derivable from the expression for the

angular momentum of a particle

momentum are examples of the

parallelsbetween linear and

rotational motion.

They have the same form and are

subject to the fundamental

constraints ofconservation laws, the

conservation of momentumand

theconservation of angular momentum.

used as a synonym for vorticity,

but this does not mean that a flow

has to be curved for vorticity to be

present.

For instance, picture below shows

water flowing in a straight

channel.

straight and parallel to the side wall.

But the rotation of the arrow shows

that vertical vorticity is present.

Near the wall is a viscous boundary

layer in which the velocity increases

with distance from the wall

One leg moves downstream

parallel to the wall while the other

leg rotates counterclockwise owing

to the non-uniform velocity

distribution.

Thus there is a net vorticity, and

the vorticity meter turns

counterclockwise.

without rotation even though the

streamlines are curved.

Fig. below shows in plan view a tank for

producing a sink vortex in which the

streamlines are tight spirals and nearly

circular.

As shown in Fig.

the vorticity

meter moves in

a circular path

but does not

rotate. It moves

in pure

translation-as

would a

compass needle

a circular streamline (Fig. below).

Leg A follows the streamline,

hence it rotates counterclockwise.

Since the angular momentum of the

fluid is conserved as it flows toward the

drain, the tangential velocity varies

inversely with the radius.

leg B is greater than the velocity of the

outer part, and leg B turns clockwise.

The clockwise turning rate of B is just

equal and opposite to the

counterclockwise turning rate of A.

Hence the vorticity is zero.

The vorticity meter, in averaging the

rotations of legs A and B, translates, without

rotation, on a circular trajectory

dynamicstheorem relating

thevelocity,vorticity, andstagnation

pressure(orentropy) of apotential flow.

Because stagnation pressure loss,

there are three popular forms for

writing Crocco's theorem:

1) Stagnation pressure:

V x = 1/ p

entropy generation can be viewed as

essentially the same thing

2) Entropy:

2) quantity of movement:

stagnation pressure,(T) - is

temperature, (s) - is entropy, and (n) is the direction normal to the

streamlines.

an incompressible, inviscid fluid acted

on by conservative body forces,

Crocco's theorem has the form

V x =1/ x p

= p + V + U

where (V) is the vector velocity, () the

vector vorticity, () the density, and

(p) gradient of stagnation pressure.

the static pressure (p), the dynamic

pressure (V/2), and the potential energy

per unit volume ( U) associated with the

conservative body-force field.

Influid dynamics,stagnation pressure(ortotal

pressure) is thestatic pressureat astagnation

pointin a fluid flow (in stagnation point the fluid

velocity is zero and all kinetic energy has been

converted into pressure energy).

Stagnation pressure is equal to the sum of

the free-streamdynamic pressureand freestream static pressure

of the paper, the vorticity vector is normal to

the paper while the velocity vector lies in

the paper and along the streamline (Fig.

below).

By Crocco's theorem, the gradient of

stagnation pressure is normal to both the

velocity vector and the vorticity vector; thus

it lies in the plane of the paper and normal

to V.

Consequently the stagnation pressure, (p ),

is constant along each streamline and

varies between streamlines only if vorticity

is present.

To illustrate, consider

again the straight

boundary layer of Fig.

The static pressure

is uniform across

the boundary layer

but the velocity is

variable. Thus the

stagnation pressure

is variable, and,

vorticity is present.

the wall and so is the gradient of

stagnation pressure. Wben the

vorticity meter is near the wall, the rate

of spin is relatively large. With the

vorticity meter farther out in the

boundary layer, the rate of spin is

smaller.

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