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Duct Design

Duct Design
The purpose of air conditioning ductwork is
to deliver air from the fan to the diffusers
which distribute the air to the room.
Air Moves Through the Ductwork in
Response to a Pressure Difference Created
by the Fan
The objective of duct design is to size the
duct so as to minimize the pressure drop
through the duct, while keeping the size
(and cost) of the ductwork to a minimum.

Duct System Pressure


Total head (ht) = Static Head (hs) + Velocity
Head (hv)
Static pressure and velocity pressure increase
and decrease as the air proceeds through the
ductwork, depending on the cross-sectional
area of the flow.
The total pressure of the airstream decreases
as the air proceeds through the ductwork due to
the conversion of mechanical energy to heat
caused by friction.

Static Pressure Losses


Frictional Losses - Due to fluid
viscosity and turbulence in the flow
through the ductwork, and occur
along the entire length of the
ductwork
Dynamic Losses - Result from flow
disturbances caused by fittings that
change the airflow direction or area.

Frictional Loss Calculation


Equal Friction Method -

The duct is sized to result


in a constant pressure loss per unit length of duct.

Velocity Reduction Method -

Velocity at the fan


discharge is pre-selected. The duct system is designed to
provide progressively lower duct velocities as the air
proceeds from the main duct to the branches.

Static Regain Method -

The ducts are sized so the


increase in static pressure at each take-off offsets the
pressure loss of the succeeding section of ductwork.

Formulas:

Formulas:
c. Variable Fan Size, d
(constant speed &
density)

Q1 = d1 3 h1 d1 2
=
Q2 d2
h2 d2

P1 = d1 5
P2 d2

Sample Problems:
1.

2.

3.

4.

Sample Problems:
5.

6.

7.

Equal Friction Method


1. Know the air volume in every tool and
branch.
2. Compute the total volume in the system
3. Determine the maximum acceptable
airflow velocity in the main ducts.
4. Determine the static pressure drop in main
duct
5. Determine the duct sizes throughout the
system
6. Determine the total resistance in the
system

Equal Friction Method


1. Know the air volume in every tool and branch.

Rigid DuctFlexible Duct

Semi-Rigid
Duct

Tool
#1
???
300 cfm
Dampers

Wye

Tool
#2
???
1,500
cfm

Short
90Elbow

Tee

Long
90
Elbow

Tool
#3
???
800 cfm

45 Elbow

Equal Friction Method


1. Know the air volume in every tool and branch.
2. Compute the total volume in the system

2,600
cfm

2,600
cfm

2,300
cfm
300
cfm

800
cfm
1,500
cfm

Tool
#1

Tool
#2

300 cfm

1,500
cfm

80
0
cf
Toolm
#3
800 cfm

Equal Friction Method


1.
2.
3.

Know the air volume in every tool and branch.


Compute the total volume in the system
Determine the maximum acceptable airflow velocity in
the main ducts.
- use 10 m/s or 1969 fpm duct velocity (industrial system 8 to 12 m/s)

2,600
cfm

2,600
cfm

2,300
cfm
300
cfm

800
cfm
1,500
cfm

Tool
#1

Tool
#2

300 cfm

1,500
cfm

80
0
cf
Toolm
#3
800 cfm

Equal Friction Method


1.
2.
3.

Know the air volume in every tool and branch.


Compute the total volume in the system
Determine the maximum acceptable airflow velocity in
the main ducts.
- use 10 m/s or 1969 fpm duct velocity (industrial system 8 to 12 m/s)

4. Determine the static pressure drop in main duct


- SP from chart is 0.3 inwg /100ft

Tool
#1

Tool
#2

Tool
#3

Equal Friction Method


1.
2.
3.

Know the air volume in every tool and branch.


Compute the total volume in the system
Determine the maximum acceptable airflow velocity in
the main ducts.
- use 10 m/s or 1969 fpm duct velocity (industrial system 8 to 12 m/s)

4.

Determine the static pressure drop in main duct


- SP from chart is 0.3 inwg /100ft
5.
Determine the duct sizes throughout the system: at 0.3
wg/100ft

2,600
cfm

D ~ 16
in

D ~ 16
in

2,600 cfm

2,300 cfm
300 cfm

D ~ 8 in
Tool
#1

300 cfm

D ~ 10 in or
12 in
800 cfm
1,500
cfm

D ~ 14
in
Tool
#2

1,500 cfm

800 cfm

D ~ 10 in or
12 in Tool
#3

800 cfm

Equal Friction Method


1.
2.
3.

Know the air volume in every tool and branch.


Compute the total volume in the system
Determine the maximum acceptable airflow velocity in
the main ducts.
- use 10 m/s or 1969 fpm duct velocity (industrial system 8 to 12 m/s)

4.

Determine the static pressure drop in main duct


- SP from chart is 0.3 inwg /100ft
5. Determine the duct sizes throughout the system: at 0.3
wg/100ft
6. Determine the total
the
system SP =
SP =resistance in SP
=
0.45
L
= 150 ft
D = 16 in

2,600
cfm

2,600 cfm
SP =
0.03
L = 20 ft
D = 8 in

0.28
L = 200 ft
D = 12 in

0.2
L = 100 ft
D = 16 in
2,300 cfm
300 cfm

Tool
#1

300 cfm

800 cfm

1,500
SP =
0.04
L = 20 ftcfm
D = 14 in

Tool
#2

1,500 cfm

SP =
0.06
L = 20 ft
D = 10 in

800 cfm

Tool
#3

800 cfm

Equal Friction Method


6. Determine the total resistance in the system
SP =
0.45
SP =
0.03

Sptotal = 0.48 wg
SP =
0.45

Tool
#1

SP = 0.2

Tool
#2

Tool
#3

Tool
#2

Tool
#3

SP =
0.04

Sptotal = 0.69 wg
Tool
#1
SP =
0.45

SP = 0.2

SP =
0.28
SP =
0.06

Sptotal = 0.99 wg
Tool

Tool

Tool

Exercise #1

Calculate the duct sizes and the total


SP.
Duct System
A

Duct System
B