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Meaning of Legal Research Methodology

Systematic study or
investigation
Existing facts or
knowledge
With object
To find truth or reality
Legal rules, principles,
concepts, theories,
doctrine, decided
cases, legal institution,
legal problem, issues
or questions

Objective of Legal Research


Nature, Scope and purpose
To Examine legal principles and precedents as
established by courts.
Nature and composition of legal institution
Relevancy
Weaknesses of existing law
Comparative analysis
Advantages or disadvantages of law
Actual fact situation
Requirement of special enactment
To discover new facts or verify old facts or
extend knowledge or develop a theory or arrive
at a general conclusion.
Authoritative work

Approaches to Legal Research

Doctrin
al
Researc
h
Libraries,
archives and
other databases.

Empiri
cal
Resear
ch

Field study,
cause and
effect, ideas,
views,
attitudes or
values.

Types of Legal Studies


Descriptive and Exploratory
studies
Explanatory studies
Analytical or Critical studies
Historical studies
Comparative studies

Deduction Top down


Theor
y

Hypothe
sis

Observati
on
Confirmat
ion

Induction Bottom up
Theory

Tentative
Hypothe
sis

Pattern
Observa
tion

Selection of the Research Topic


Sources

Basic consideration in the selection of topic


Genuine interest to researcher

Research design
Title of the research project
A hypothesis is an
Introduction
unproven proposition
Research question
or possible solution
Hypothesis
to a problem.
Hypothetical
Literature Review
statements
assert
Objective of the study possible answers to
Research Methodologyresearch questions.
A hypothesis... in its
Scope of the study
simplest... is a guess.
William G. Zikmund,
Significance of the study
Business
Research
Contents/ Chapters
Methods (6th edition)
Tables and Bibliography
Ohio: South Western,

Writing Dissertations and Theses


Organization of
the Research
Work
Outline
Chapters
Headings/
Sections
Paragraphs
Sentences

Writing style
Clarity
Plain Language
Gender neutral
language
Necessary steps before
finalizing the work
Revising
Editing
Reference citation
Conclusion

Socio Legal Research

Exploratory studies
Descriptive studies
Explanatory studies
Casual studies
Basic Research
Applied Research
Evaluation studies
Pilot studies
Cross- Sectional
studies

Longitudinal
studies
Panel studies
Cohort studies
Trend studies
Predictive studies
Quantitative
Research
Qualitative
Research

Research Design in Socio- Legal


Research
Title of the research project
Introduction
Research question
Hypothesis
Literature Review
Objective of the study
Research Methodology
Scope of the study
Significance of the study
Contents/ Chapters
Tables and Bibliography

Methodology
Type of data needed
Methods of data
collection
Socio- cultural
context of the study
Place or geographical
area to be covered by
the study
Type of sampling to be
used
Data Coding and
Analysis

Note of formulation of
Hypothesis
Independent and
Dependent variables
Verified or tested
Concepts and
Comparison in
Hypothesis should be
clearly stated
Types of Hypothesis
One- directional
Two- directional
Null Hypothesis

Social survey research


method
Socio

Interview
Questionnaire

Socio
graphic
characteri
stics
Attitudes

Behaviour

Observation Method of Data Collection


Selection

Participant
Observation
Nonparticipant
Observation

Major steps in observation research


Field work preparation

Interview Method of Data Collection

Procedure in conducting the interview

Initiating
Dealing
Broad
Question
Clarifying
Leading
Recording
Record
Question
the
with
Questions
as
the
Issues
Responses
Interview
Worded
Refusals
Interview
Initially

Advantages

Greater Flexibility
Probing
Length
of Interview

High
Participation
Possibility of
Obtaining High
Responses

Disadvantages

Interview Bias

Advantages of Telephonic
Interviewing

Disadvantages
Limited Duration

Questionnaire Method
of Data Collection
Relevance of the Study

Open- ended questions


Advantages

Disadvantages

Freedom to express
Beneficial
for
exploratory research
Too many potential
answers
Complex issues
Better understanding
to draw inferences &
conclusions

Wide
variety
to
answers
Problem in analysis
& tabulation
Requires
superior
writing skills
Too
general
in
nature
to
understand
More time & effort.

Close- ended questions


Advantages

Disadvantages

Precise
Fixed answers or
predetermined
forced answers
answers
Lack of adding
Coding,
comments
by
comparison,
respondents
tabulation
& Difficult
to
analysis
ascertain
the
becomes easy
correct
Less reluctant to understanding
answer
of question

Question wording
Clarity
Sensitive
Leading
Double
Order
andof
Simplicity
and
barrelled
questions
questions
Embarrassing
questionsquestion

Mailed questionnaire
Limited
Usefulness
Advantages
Geographical
Disadvantages
Flexibility
Lack of
Locating
Flexibility
Respondents
Low response
Cost
rate
Time Saving
Problem of
Respondent
Unanswered
Convenience
questions
Greater Anonymity
Possibility of
Cover
Letter
Interview
bias
others answering
Survey Sponsorship
the questions
Monetary Incentives
Follow- ups

Sampling
Nature of sampling
Sampling in Quantitative
Research
Advantages in Sampling
Technical terms used in
Sampling
Sampling Element or Unit
Population
Sampling Frame

Drawing a sample from the sampling frame

Sources of Sampling Frame


Sampling
Types of Samples
Probability SamplingSampling
Simple Random Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Stratified Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Non- Probability Samples
Convenience Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Snow ball Sampling
Quota Sampling

error
size

Data Preparation and Analysis


Qualitative Data Analysis
Quantitative Data Analysis
Editing
Handling Blank Responses
Dealing with Dont Know Responses
Appropriatene
Field Editing
ss
In- house Editing
Exhaustivenes
Coding
s
Mutual
Exclusivity

Item no
1. Identification
no.
2.
Offenders
Name
3. DOB
4. Prior Cases of
arrest Domestic
violence
5. Gender
6.
Relationship

Variable Respons
name
e

Writing a Socio-Legal Research Report