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TUGAS

KELOMPOK
151321

Bab 10

Deteksi galat dan koreksi


(Error Detection and
Correction)

Catatan:
Data dapat terkorupsi selama nt
reliable communication, error harus
dapat dideteksi dan dikoreksi.

10.1 Tipe-tipe Error

Error bit-tunggal (Single-Bit


Error)
Error deburan (Burst Error)

Catatan:
Dalam error bit tunggal (single-bit
error), berarti hanya ada satu bit yang
berubah dalam data unit.

Gambar 10.1

Error bit-tunggal

Catatan:
Error deburan (burst error) jika
terdapat lebih dari 2 bit yang berubah
pada data unit.

Gambar 10.2

Burst error of length 5

10.2 Deteksi Error


Redundancy
Parity Check
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
Checksum

Catatan:
Deteksi error menggunakan konsep
menambahkan bit-bit (redundancy),
berarti menambahkan bit ekstra untuk
mendeteksi error pada tujuan
(penerima).

Gambar 10.3

Redundancy

Gambar 10.4

Metode deteksi

10.5

Konsep paritas genap (even-parity)

Catatan:
Pada parity check, suatu bit paritas
ditambahkan pada setian satuan
(unit) data sehingga jumlah bitnya
ditambah 1, dapat diterapkan dua
jenis paritas yaitu paritas ganjil (evenparity atau odd parity).

Catatan 1
Supposethesenderwantstosendthewordworld.In
ASCIIthefivecharactersarecodedas
1110111 1101111 1110010 1101100 1100100
Thefollowingshowstheactualbitssent
1110111011011110111001001101100011001001

Contoh 2
NowsupposethewordworldinContoh1isreceivedby
thereceiverwithoutbeingcorruptedintransmission.
11101110110111101110010011011000
11001001
Thereceivercountsthe1sineachcharacterandcomesup
withevennumbers(6,6,4,4,4).Thedataareaccepted.

Contoh 3
NowsupposethewordworldinContoh1iscorrupted
duringtransmission.
11111110110111101110110011011000
11001001
Thereceivercountsthe1sineachcharacterandcomesup
withevenandoddnumbers(7,6,5,4,4).Thereceiver
knowsthatthedataarecorrupted,discardsthem,andasks
forretransmission.

Catatan:
Simple parity check can detect all
single-bit errors. It can detect burst
errors only if the total number of
errors in each data unit is odd.

Gambar 10.6

Sistem paritas dua-dimensi

Contoh 4
Supposethefollowingblockissent:
10101001001110011101110111100111
10101010

However,itishitbyaburstnoiseoflength8,andsome
bitsarecorrupted.
10100011100010011101110111100111
10101010

Whenthereceivercheckstheparitybits,someofthebits
donotfollowtheevenparityruleandthewholeblockis

Catatan:
In two-dimensional parity check, a
block of bits is divided into rows and a
redundant row of bits is added to the
whole block.

10.7

CRC generator and checker

10.8

Binary division in a CRC generator

10.9

Pembagian biner pada metode CRC

10.10

Polinomial

10.11 Polinomial sebagai bilangan pembagi

Tabel 10.1 Polinomial Standar


Name

Polynomial

Application

CRC-8

x8 + x2 + x + 1

ATM header

CRC-10

x10 + x9 + x5 + x4 + x 2 + 1

ATM AAL

ITU-16

x16 + x12 + x5 + 1

HDLC

ITU-32

x32 + x26 + x23 + x22 + x16 + x12 + x11 + x10


+ x8 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x + 1

LANs

Contoh 5
Itisobviousthatwecannotchoosex(binary10)orx2+x
(binary110)asthepolynomialbecausebotharedivisible
byx.However,wecanchoosex+1(binary11)because
itisnotdivisiblebyx,butisdivisiblebyx+1.Wecan
alsochoosex2+1(binary101)becauseitisdivisibleby
x+1(binarydivision).

Contoh 6
TheCRC12
x12+x11+x3+x+1
whichhasadegreeof12,willdetectallbursterrors
affectinganoddnumberofbits,willdetectallburst
errorswithalengthlessthanorequalto12,andwill
detect,99.97percentofthetime,bursterrorswitha
lengthof12ormore.

10.12

Checksum

10.13

Data unit and checksum

Catatan:
The sender follows these steps:
The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.
All sections are added using ones complement to get
the sum.
The sum is complemented and becomes the checksum.
The checksum is sent with the data.

Catatan:
The receiver follows these steps:
The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.
All sections are added using ones complement to get
the sum.
The sum is complemented.
If the result is zero, the data are accepted: otherwise,
rejected.

Contoh 7
Anggappadablockberikutyangterdiriatas16bit,dikirimkan
menggunakansuatuchecksum8bit.
1010100100111001
Keduabilangandijumlahkanmenggunakanpenjumlahanones
complement
10101001
00111001

Sum 11100010
Checksum00011101
Polabityangdikirimkan101010010011100100011101

Contoh 8
Sekaranganggapsuatupenerimamenerimapolabityangdikirim
olehpengirimsepertiContoh7dananggaptanpaerrorpada
transmisi.
101010010011100100011101
Jikaketigabilangantersebutdijumlahkan,makaakandiperoleh
bilanganyangbernilai1semuanya,jikadilakukanoperasi
komplemen(complementing),menghasilkanbilanganyangbit
bitnyabernilai0semua,halinimenunjukantidakterjadierror.
10101001
00111001
00011101
Sum

11111111

Complement

00000000berartipolanyabenar.

Contoh 9
Anggappadatransmisiterjadisuatuerrordeburan(bursterror)yangpanjangnya
5bitdanberpengaruhpada4bit.
101011111111100100011101
Jikapadapenerimaketigabilangantersebutdijumlahkan,akandiperoleh
10101111
11111001
00011101
PartialSum111000101
Carry
Sum

1
11000110

Complement00111001Terjadikorupsipadapolabityang
diterima.

10.3 Koreksi Error

Retransmission
Forward Error Correction
Burst Error Correction

Tabel 10.2 Data dan bit-bit redundancy


Number of
data bits
m

Number of
redundancy bits
r

Total
bits
m+r

10

11

Gambar 10.14

Posisi bit-bit redundancy pada Hamming code

Gambar 10.15

Kalkulasi bit-bit redundancy

Gambar 10.16

Contoh kalkulasi bit redundancy

Gambar 10.17

Deteksi error berdasar Hamming code

Gambar 10.18 Contoh koreksi error deburan (burst error)