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A Discussion Presentation

on

Valves - classification
basis and
components
Specialty Items

Valves
Valve An integral part of the piping system
Classified on the basis of
a) Valve function/action
- On/off (stopping or starting flow)
- Regulating (varying the rate of flow)
- Checking (permitting flow in one direction only)
b) Operation
- Manual/Auto operation (e.g. Ball, globe, gate, butterfly,
needle)
- Self operation (e.g. Check valve)
The internal elements of a valve are collectively referred to as a
Valve Trim. The trim typically includes a disk, seat, stem, and
sleeves needed to guide the stem.

Piping Department

Valve components
The basic parts that make up a valve
are:a) The DISC - The moving part directly
affecting the flow irrespective of its
shape.
b) The SEAT - The non moving part the
disc rests on.
c) The PORT - is the maximum internal
opening for flow (that is when the valve
is fully open).
d) The STEM - in case of manual
operated valve, disc is actuated by the
stem. Two types
a) Rising stem (e.g.. Gate, globe)
b) Non rising/rotating stem (e.g. ball,
butterfly)
Piping Department

Valve components
e) The BONNET - three types
a) Screwed - For services where there is no harm to personnel. More
suitable for small valves requiring frequent dismantling.
b) Bolted - Frequently used in hydrocarbon applications. For
pressures and to facilitate frequent cleaning and inspection.

moderate

c) Breech-lock - The breech-lock is a heavier infrequently used are more


expensive construction, also for high pressure use and
involves seal
welding of the bonnet with the body.
f) LANTERN RING - As an option the bonnet may include a lantern ring
which serves two purposes
a) either to act as a collection point to drain off any hazardous seepages,
b) or as a point where lubricant can be injected.

Piping Department

Gate Valve

A gate valve is a valve that opens


by lifting a round or rectangular
gate/wedge out of the path of the
fluid.

Gate valves are sometimes used


for regulating flow, but many are not
suited for that purpose, having been
designed to be fully opened or
closed. When fully open, the typical
gate valve has no obstruction in the
flow path, resulting in very low
friction loss.

Piping Department

Gate Valve

Gate valves are characterized as having either a rising or a non-rising


stem.

Rising stems provide a visual indication of valve position.

Non-rising stems are used where vertical space is limited or


underground.

Piping Department

Globe Valve

A Globe valve is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline,


consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a
generally spherical body .

Globe Valves are named for their spherical body shape with the two
halves of the body being separated by an internal baffle.

Automated globe valves have a smooth stem rather than threaded and
are opened and closed by an actuator assembly.

When a globe valve is manually operated, the stem is turned by a hand


wheel.

Piping Department

Ball Valves - Introduction

Ball valves are flow valves that are quarter-turn

These valves allow for shut-off and/or purposes of control.

A ball valve is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball


inside the valve.

The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in
line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur.

When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the
valve, and flow is blocked.

Piping Department

Ball Valves Types


Full port, Standard port & Reduced port

A full port ball valve has an over sized ball so that the
hole in the ball is the same size as the pipeline resulting
in lower friction loss. Flow is unrestricted, but the valve is
larger.

A standard port ball valve is up to one pipe size


smaller than nominal pipe size but still has a significantly
better flow than globe valve. Usually less expensive.

A reduced port ball valves have more than one pipe


size flow restriction and are not recommended in building
services piping, but rather for process piping in
hazardous material transfer.

Piping Department

Ball Valves Types


V-Port Ball Valve

A v port ball valve has either a 'v' shaped


ball or a 'v' shaped seat.

This allows the orifice to be opened and


closed in a more controlled manner with a
closer to linear flow characteristic.

Linear flow characteristic produces


equal change in flow per unit of valve stroke,
regardless of the position of the valve.

When the valve is in the closed position


and opening is commenced the small end of
the v' is opened first allowing stable flow
control during this stage.

Piping Department

Ball Valves Types


One piece, Two piece and Three piece

One piece ball valves are almost always reduced bore(thus significant
pressure drop), are relatively inexpensive and generally are throw-away. Have
no potential body leak path.

Two piece ball valves are generally slightly reduced (or standard) bore, they
can be either throw-away or repairable. Best price value.

The 3 piece design allows for the center part of the valve containing the
ball, stem & seats to be easily removed from the pipeline. This facilitates
efficient cleaning of deposited sediments, replacement of seats and gland
packing's, polishing out of small scratches on the ball, all this without removing
the pipes from the valve body. The design concept of a three piece valve is for
it to be repairable.

Piping Department

Ball Valves Types


Two way & three way ball valves

Three-way ball valves have an Lor T-shaped hole through the


middle.

Multi port ball valves with 4 or


more ways are also commercially
available, the inlet way often being
orthogonal to the plane of the
outlets.

This valve has two L-shaped


ports in the ball that do not
interconnect, sometimes referred to
as an "x" port.

Piping Department

Ball Valves Applications


Ball valves have many good points and are often considered superior to
many other kinds of valves.

Ball valves are very easy to use and can both maintain and regulate three
things
-high pressure
-high volume and
-high flow of temperature.

Other advantages of ball valves are that they are sturdy devices that can
be purchased for a low price and they have a long service life.

An added plus is that the regulating element's design makes it easy for
the ball valve to work without concern about side loads, which often plague
globe or butterfly valves.

The ball valve design allows for the easy ability to fix the seats if a
problem arises and also seals without having to take away the body of the
valves from the line.

Piping Department

Ball Valves Applications

Ball valves are durable and usually work to achieve perfect shutoff even
after years of disuse.

They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications (and are
often preferred to globe valves and gate valves for this purpose). They do
not offer the fine control that may be necessary in throttling applications but
are sometimes used for this purpose.

Ball valves are used extensively in industry because they are very
versatile, pressures up to 10,000 psi, temperatures up to 200 Deg C. Sizes
from 1/4" to 12" are readily available They are easy to repair, operate
manually or by actuators.

Ball valves are to be found being used in a number of different industries.


Some of these include the chemical, oil, pharmaceutical, allied process
and also services such as corrosive and cryogenic.

Piping Department

Butterfly Valves Introduction

A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to


regulate a fluid flowing through a section of pipe.

A flat circular plate is positioned in the center of the pipe. The plate has a
rod through it connected to an actuator on the outside of the valve.
Rotating the actuator turns the plate either parallel or perpendicular to the
flow.

Unlike a ball valve, the plate is always present within the flow, therefore
a pressure drop is always induced in the flow regardless of valve position.

A butterfly valve is from a family of valves called quarter-turn valves.

Piping Department

Butterfly Valves Types


TYPES

Resilient butterfly valve which has a flexible rubber seat. Working pressure
232 PSI. The resilient butterfly valve, which uses the flexibility of rubber, has
the lowest pressure rating.

High performance butterfly valve which is usually double eccentric in


design. Working pressure up to 725 PSI. The high performance butterfly
valve, used in slightly higher-pressure systems, features a slight offset in the
way the disc is positioned, which increases the valve's sealing ability and
decreases its tendency to wear.

Tricentric butterfly valve which is usually with metal seated design.


Working pressure up to 1450 PSI.

The valve best suited for high-pressure systems is the tricentric


butterfly valve, which makes use of a metal seat, and is therefore able to
withstand a greater amount of pressure.

Piping Department

Butterfly Valve - Mounting Schemes


BUTTERFLY VALVE MOUNTING SCHEMES
Wafer Style Butterfly Valves - The wafer style butterfly valve is installed
between two flanges. The valve is kept in place by using bolts or studs and nuts
from flange to flange. This type of installation, of course, makes it impossible to
disconnect just one side of the piping system from the valve. That is where the
lug style valve comes in.
Lug Style Butterfly Valves - Lug style valves have threaded inserts at both
sides of the valve body. This allows them to be installed into a system using two
sets of bolts and NO nuts. The valve is installed between two flanges using a
separate set of bolts for each flange. This setup permits either side of the piping
system to be disconnected without disturbing the other side.
A lug style butterfly valve used in dead end service generally has a reduced
pressure rating. For example a lug style butterfly valve mounted between two
flanges has a 150 psi pressure rating. The same valve mounted with one flange,
in dead end service, has a 75 psi rating.
Piping Department

Butterfly Valve - Applications

Butterfly valves are commonly used as control valves in applications


where the pressure drops required of the valves are relatively low.

Butterfly valves can be used in applications as either shutoff valves


(on/off service) or as throttling valves (for flow or pressure control).

Typical uses would include isolation of equipment, fill/drain systems,


bypass systems, and other like applications where the only criteria for
control of the flow/pressure is that it be on or off.

Two special applications for a butterfly valve include the use of a valve for
free discharge and the use of a butterfly valve for flashing or choking
cavitation.
(Cavitation is defined as the phenomenon of formation of vapour bubbles of a
flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour
pressure)

Piping Department

Check Valve - Introduction

A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical


device, a valve, which normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in
only one direction.

Check valves work automatically and most are not controlled by a person or
any external control; accordingly, most do not have any valve handle or stem.

An important concept in check valves is the cracking pressure which is the


minimum upstream pressure at which the valve will operate.

Typically the check valve is designed for and can therefore be specified for a
specific cracking pressure.

Piping Department

Check Valve - Types

Ball check valve

Diaphragm check valve

Swing check valve

Clapper valve

Lift-check valve

Piping Department

Check Valve - Applications

Pumps commonly use inlet and outlet ball check valves.

Check valves are used in many fluid systems such as those in chemical,
and power plants, and in many other industrial processes.

Check valves are also often used when multiple gases are mixed into one
gas stream. A check valve is installed on each of the individual gas streams to
prevent mixing of the gases in the original source.

Piping Department

Valves Design Code & MOC

Design Code - ASME B 16.34 (Valves-Flanged, Welded and Threaded


End)

Material of Construction - Valves are made using an assortment of


materials, some of which include
- Carbon steel
- Stainless steels
- Alloy steel

Valve Inspection, Testing - API 598 covers the testing and


inspection requirements for gate, globe, check, ball, plug & butterfly
valves.

Piping Department

Valve Type & Service


Final Comparison

VALVE TYPE

SERVICE

BALL

General type valve, Used for all fluids.(On/Off)

GATE

Usually, used for Liquid (On/Off), never used for flow rate control
(Knife Gate type used for Low pressure, Liquid Mud)

GLOBE

Used for flow rate control (Small diameter Utility connection etc.)

CHECK

Used for prevention of back flow

NEEDLE

Its a Small Size, used for flow rate control certainly, compare with others.

BUTTERFLY

It has not Compact, easy to operate, so that used for Firewater, Bulk line, usually.

MODULAR

It has Double Block & Bleed function, so that used for Branch line of High pressure
Instrument.

PLUG

Used for fluid include solid body, like a sand, Used for High pressure valve in
Wellhead

Piping Department

Valve Material & Specificity


CS VALVE MATERIAL

Classification

CS (high temp.)
Forging

Material Code
B
O
D
Y

LTCS ( low temp.)

Casting

Forging

Casting

ASTM A105(N)

ASTM A216

ASTM A350

ASTM A352

Using Grade

WCB

LF2/LF3

LCC

Min.Y.S. (ksi)

35

36

35

40

Min.T.S. (ksi)

60

70

60

70

Impact Test

N/A

N/A

18J/-50F

20J/-50F

0.3
0.035
NA (0.5 :S5)

0.3
0.045
N/A

0.3
0.025
NA

0.25
0.045
NA ( 0.55:S23)

(Aver. J/deg.)

Chem.
Content

C
S
CE

Trim Material

A182 F316, A182 F6A(13 Cr.)


Stellite-6 hard facing
A564 Gr.630(Age hardening),

A182 F316, A564 Gr.630, Stellite-6

Bolt/Nut Material

A193-B7/A194-2H

A320-L7/A194-7

Seat Material

PEEK/PTFE

PEEK/R-PTFE

Seal/Packing

Viton, Teflon, Graphite

Viton, Teflon, Graphite

Piping Department

Valve Material & Specificity


SS VALVE MATERIAL

Classification

Stainless Steel
Forging

B
O
D
Y

Duplex Stainless Steel

Casting

Forging

Casting

Material Code

ASTM A182

ASTM A351

ASTM A182

ASTM A890

Using Grade

F316/ F316L

CF8M

F51

4A

Min.Y.S. (ksi)

30/25

30

65

60

Min.T.S. (ksi)

75/70

70

90

90

10-14
16-18
0.08/0.035
0.03
2-3

9-12
18-21
0.08
0.04
2-3

4.5-6.5
21-23
0.03
0.02
2.5-3.5

4.5-6.5
21-23.5
0.03
0.02
2.5-3.5

Chem.
Content

Ni
Cr
C
S
Mo

Trim Material

A182 F316, A182 F XM-19(22Cr,13Ni)


,Stellite-6 hard face, A479 316 (ENP),

A182 F51, Stellite-6 hard facing


A479 S31803

Bolt/Nut Material

A193-B7/A194-2H, A193-B8M/A194-8M

A320-L7/A194-7, A182 F51/F55

Seat Material

PEEK, /RPTFE

PEEK, R-PTFE

Sael/Packing

Viton, Teflon, Graphite

Viton, Teflon, Graphite

Piping Department

Valve Material & Specificity


ALLOY STEEL VALVE MATERIAL

Classification
Material Code

Ni-Al-bronze (for Cu-Ni)

Titanium

ASTM B148(Casting)

ASTM B381(Titanium forging)


ASTM B367 (Titanium Casting)

Using Grade

UNS C95800

F2(Forging), C2(Casting)

Min.Y.S. (ksi)

35

40

Min.T.S. (ksi)

85

50

Cu: 81.3%
Ni: 4.5%
Iron: 4%
Al: 9.5%

C: 0.03
Iron 0.25
Ti: app.99%

Trim Material

ASTM B151 UNS C70600


A182 F316 AISI 316

ASTM B381- F2

Bolt/Nut Material

A193-B8M/A194-8M

ASTM F467/468 Gr.5 or 9

Seat Material

PEEK / PTFE

PTFE

Sael/Packing

Viton, Teflon, Graphite

Viton, Teflon, Graphite

B
O
D
Y

Chemical
Content

Piping Department

Ball Valve Specification


CLASSIFICATION

ASME or API

BS or EN

Design Standard

API 6D, API 608


ASME B16.34 (Pressure Temp. Rating )

BS 5351
EN 13547 ( Al-Bronze valve)

Face to Face
dimension

API 6D
ASME B16.10 (long Pattern)

BS EN 558 Part 2

Housing Design

One Piece Body or Split Body (2 piece, 3 piece) , Side or Top entry

Seat Arrangement

Floating Type: L.P. & small size (ex: 150/300#:<12, 600/900#;<8, 1500/2500#:<4)
Trunnion type: H.P. & large size (ex: 150/300#:>=12, 600/900#;>=8,
1500/2500#:>=4)

Bore Type

RB: Reduced Bore, FB: Full Bore

Operator

Lever: L.P. & small size (ex: 150/300#:<12, 600/900#;<8, 1500/2500#:<4) ,


Gear Operate: H.P. & large size (ex: 150/300#:>=12, 600/900#;>=8, 1500/2500#:>=4)
Actuator : Electric Actuator, Hydraulic Actuator, Pneumatic Actuator

Pressure rating

ASME B16.34 (150#,300#....2500#)

Fire Test Cert.

API 6FA, ISO-10497, API 607

Body/Seat Hyd. Test

API 6D, ISO 5208

BS EN 12266 Part-1

Leakage Rate

ISO 5208 Rate A

BS EN 12266 Part-1 Rate A

Locking Device

- Car Seal or Pad Lock (ASTM F993), - Mechanical Inter-locking device

Piping Department

EN13547 (PN20,PN50 PN420)

Gate Valve Specification


CLASSIFICATION

ASME or API

BS or EN

Design Standard

API 602 : for size <=2


API6D, API 600 (Style B): for size >=2

BS 5352: SW, FNPT


BS 1414: Flanged

Face to Face
dimension

API 6D, ASME B16.10

BS 1414
BS 5154

Housing Design

-Regular type with OS&Yoke, solid disc, bolted bonnet/grand Rising stem
- Knife edge gate.

Seat Arrangement

Renewable metal seat


Integral seat with hard facing.

Operator

Hand wheel

Pressure rating

API 800# ; for size <=2


ASME B16.34 (#150, #300)

Fire Test Cert.

ISO 10497 ( type approval)

Body/Seat Hyd. Test


& Leakage Rate

API 598
ISO 5208, Rate A

Piping Department

EN13547 (PN20,PN50 PN420)


Cl. 800#

BS/EN 12266 Part-1

Globe Valve Specification


Classification

ASME or API

BS or EN

Design Standard

ASME B16.34, API 600

BS 1873: Flanged,
BS 5352 :SW, FNPT

Face to Face
dimension

ASME B16.10

BS EN 588 Part-2: Flanged


BS 5352: SW, FNPT

Housing Design

Regular type with outside screw and yoke, solid disc, bolted bonnet/grand

Seat Arrangement

Renewable seat,
Integral seat with hard facing.

Operator

Hand wheel

Pressure rating

ASME B16.34 (150#, 300#....),


API 800#: for size <=2

Fire Test Cert.

ISO 10497

Body/Seat Hyd. Test

API 598

BS EN 12266 Part-1

Leakage Rate

API 598

BS EN 12266 Part-1, Rate B

Piping Department

EN13547 (PN20,PN50 )
Cl.800

Check Valve Specification


Classification

ASME or API

BS or EN

Design Standard

Swing Check: API 6D/ASME B16.34


Dual Plate : API 594 / ASME B16.34
Piston : ASME B16.34

Swing Check: BS 1868


Piston :BS EN 15761 Flange,
BS 5352;SW,FNPT

Face to Face
dimension

ASME B16.10/API 6D: Swing Type


API 594 : Dual Plate type

BS 2080 ( for size <=1.5)

Housing Design

Swing: Straight pattern, Piston: Bolted Bonnet, Dual plate: lugged Wafer

Seat Arrangement

Swing/Dual Plate: Metal to Metal, Piston: Spring loaded ball/piston, renewable

Operator

Not Applicable

Pressure rating

ASME B16.34 (150#,300#,...)


API #800: for size <=2

Fire Test Cert.

ISO 10497

Body/Seat Hyd. Test

ISO 5208:swing check


API 598:dual plate check

ISO 5208: swing


BS EN 12266 part-1: piston

Leakage Rate

ISO 5208 RateA: swing check


API 598 table-5, rateC: dual plate

ISO 5208 rateA: swing


BS EN 12266 part-1 Rate B: piston

Piping Department

EN13547 (PN20,PN50)
Cl.800#

Needle Valve Specification


Classification

ASME or API

BS or EN

Design Standard

ASME B16.34

BS 1873

Face to Face
dimension

ASME B16.10

BS 2080

Housing Design

Manufacturer standard

Seat Arrangement

Integral or Renewable seat

Operator

Hand Wheel

Pressure rating

API #800, #3000, #6000

Fire Test Cert.

ISO 10497

Body/Seat Hyd. Test

BS EN 12266 Part-1

Leakage Rate

BS EN 12266 Part-1 rate A

Piping Department

Butterfly Valve Specification


Classification

ASME or API

BS or EN

Design Standard

API 609 Category-A or B

BS 5155

Face to Face
dimension

API 609 Table-2

BS 5155

Housing Design

Wafer Type ( Lug Type ,Fully Lug type), Flange Type

Seat Arrangement

Renewable

Operator

Hand wheel: small size (ex: Up to 6size) ,


Gear Operate: large size (ex: 8 and above)
Actuator : Electric Actuator, Hydraulic Actuator, Pneumatic Actuator

Pressure rating

ASME B16.34 (150#,300#...)

Fire Test Cert.

ISO 10497, API 6FA,

Body/Seat Hyd. Test

API 598

Leakage Rate

API 598 Table-5

Piping Department

Data Sheets
LINE SIZE
MATERIAL

Body Material
Trim Material
Seat Material
Gasket Material
Bolt/Nut Material.

OPERATOR

Hand Wheel
Gear Operated
Chain Operated
Lever Operated

SEAT ARRANGEMENT

Integral
Renewable

CONSTRUACTION
FEATURES

Reduced Port, Standard Port or Full Port.


One piece, Two Piece or Three Piece.
Stem Rising/Non Rising/Rotating
Bonnet Screwed, Bolted or Breechlock.
Mounting System Lug or Wafar type

PRESSURE RATING

Piping Department

SPECIALITY ITEMS

Steam Trap
Rupture Disc
Strainers
Flame Arrestor

Steam Traps

What are Steam


Traps?
The duty of steam trap is to remove the condensate and non
condensable
gases from the steam main line It must involve negligible
consumption or loss
of live steam.
An example:
Without steam traps being used condensate would form in the
distribution
piping, creating a wide range of problems. Steam would enter a set of
tubes or
a coil at one end and come out at the other end as either steam,
condensate or
a two-phase mixture of the two; very dangerous, damaging and
wasteful.

Piping Department

Steam
Traps
Uses
Thus by installing steam traps in strategic locations throughout the
distribution system we can eliminate those problems. With proper
placement and specification of steam traps we can create and
maintain an efficient, cost effective steam supply and distribution
system
The three important functions of steam traps are:
- Discharge condensate as soon as it is formed.
- Have a negligible steam consumption.
- Have the capability of discharging air and other non-condensable
gases.

Piping Department

Types of Steam Traps

a) THERMOSTATIC

TEMPERATURE

Piping Department

b) MECHANICAL

DENSITY

c) THERMODYNAMIC

KINETIC ENERGY

a) Mechanical Steam
Traps

It works on the principle of the difference in density between


steam and condensate.
This trap is made up of mechanical apparatus that is driven by the
density of condensate to operate a float or a bucket.
It has a float that rises and falls in relation to condensate level and
this usually has a mechanical linkage attached that opens and
closes the valve. Mechanical traps operate in direct relationship to
condensate levels present in the body of the steam trap.
They can continuously pass large volumes of condensate and are
suitable for a wide range of process applications.

Piping Department

Types of Mechanical Stream


Traps

Float and thermostatic type(ball float type)

Inverted Bucket type

Piping Department

Mechanical Stream Traps


Float and Thermostatic type

Thermostatic air vent

Piping Department

Advantages

The trap continuously discharges condensate at steam temperature. This makes it the first choice
for applications where the rate of heat transfer is high for the area of heating surface available.
It is able to handle heavy or light condensate loads equally well and is not affected by wide and
sudden fluctuations of pressure or flow rate.
As long as an automatic air vent is fitted, the trap is able to discharge air freely.
It has a large capacity for its size.

Piping Department

Disadvantag
es

Although less susceptible than the inverted bucket trap, the float type trap can be damaged by
severe freezing and the body should be well lagged.
As with all mechanical type traps, different internals are required to allow operation over varying
pressure ranges. Traps designed to operate on higher differential pressures have smaller orifices
to balance the bouyancy of the float. If a trap is subjected to a higher differential pressure than
intended, it will close and not pass condensate.

Piping Department

Mechanical Stream
Traps
Inverted bucket steam trap

(i) The bucket hangs down, pulling


the valve off its seat. Condensate
flows under the bottom of the
bucket filling the body and flowing
away through the outlet.

(ii) the arrival of steam causes


the bucket to become buoyant,
it then rises and shuts the
outlet.
In (ii), air reaching the trap at
start-up will also give the bucket
buoyancy and close the valve.
The bucket vent hole is
essential to allow air to escape
into the top of the trap for
eventual discharge through the
main valve seat. The hole, and
the pressure differential, are
small so the trap is relatively
slow at venting air. At the same
time it must pass (and therefore
waste) a certain amount of
steam for the trap to operate
once the air has cleared. A
parallel air vent fitted outside
the trap will reduce start-up
times.

Piping Department

Most widely used


trap in the industry.

There
aren't
necessarily situations
where this type of trap
wouldnt work but
rather
situations
where
a
less
expensive,
smaller,
possible long lasting
type of trap cold have
been applied.

(iii) the trap remains shut until the


steam in the bucket has condensed
or bubbled through the vent hole to
the top of the trap body. It will then
sink, pulling the main valve off its
seat. Accumulated condensate is
released and the cycle is repeated.

Advantages

The inverted bucket steam trap can be made to withstand high pressures.
Like a float-thermostatic steam trap, it has a good tolerance to waterhammer conditions.
Can be used on superheated steam lines with the addition of a check valve on the inlet.
Failure mode is usually open, so it's safer on those applications that require this feature, for
example turbine drains.

Piping Department

Disadvantag
es

The small size of the hole in the top of the bucket means that this type of trap can only discharge
air very slowly. The hole cannot be enlarged, as steam would pass through too quickly during
normal operation.
There should always be enough water in the trap body to act as a seal around the lip of the
bucket. If the trap loses this water seal, steam can be wasted through the outlet valve.
Like the float trap, the orifice in an inverted bucket trap is designed to operate up to a maximum
differential pressure. If the trap is subjected to a higher differential pressure thanintended, it will
close and not pass condensate.

Piping Department

b) Thermostatic Steam
Traps

This type of trap operates on the principle of expanding liquids


and metals.
They have a valve that is driven on / off the seat by either
expansion / contraction caused by
temperature change.
They differ from mechanical traps in that their design requires
them to hold back some condensate waiting for it to cool
sufficiently to allow the valve to open.
In most circumstances this is not desirable as condensate needs to
be removed as soon as it is formed.

Piping Department

Types of thermostatic steam


traps

Bimetallic steam trap

Liquid expansion steam trap

Balanced pressure steam trap

Piping Department

Thermostatic Steam
Traps
Bimetallic Steam trap

Piping Department

Operation of bimetallic steam trap with two leaf


element

Advantage
s

Bimetallic steam traps are usually compact, yet can have a large condensate capacity.
The valve is wide open when the steam trap is cold, giving good air venting capability and
maximum condensate discharge capacity under 'start-up' conditions
Bimetallic steam traps are usually able to withstand waterhammer, corrosive condensate, and
high steam pressures.
The bimetal elements can work over a wide range of steam pressures without any need for a
change in the size of the valve orifice.

Piping Department

Disadvantag
es

As condensate is discharged below steam temperature, waterlogging of the steam space will
occur unless the steam trap is fitted at the end of a long cooling leg, typically 1 - 3m of unlagged
pipe (see Fig. 11.2.14). Bimetallic steam traps are not suitable for fitting to process plants where
immediate condensate removal is vital for maximum output to be achieved.
Bimetallic steam traps do not respond quickly to changes in load or pressure because the
element is slow to react.

Piping Department

Thermostatic Steam
Traps
Liquid Expansion Type

Thermal expansion traps contain a thermostatic element that is filled with oil.
As the oil heats up and expands, it causes a piston to move and thereby close a valve.
During start up, air and condensate are expelled from the open valve.
When the oil is sufficiently heated by the steam, the valve closes to keep the steam from escaping
This trap contains an oil-filled cylinder encasing a sealed bellows with an enclosed piston driven rod with a valve on one end.
When the temperature of the condensate, flowing through the trap housing, begins to rise the oil in the cylinder begins to expand in
response.
As the oil expands it drives the rod assembly toward a valve seat located in the inlet of the trap body.
As the condensate surrounding the cylinder cools down the oil contracts allowing the rod assembly to retract from the valve seat.
Condensate begins to flow until it heats sufficiently to close the valve again.
The Liquid Expansion Trap also has an adjustable nut on one end. This allows the set temperature to be adjusted within the operating
range of the trap.

Piping Department

Advantage
s

Liquid expansion traps can be adjusted to discharge at low temperatures, giving an excellent 'cold
drain' facility.
Like the balanced pressure trap, the liquid expansion trap is fully open when cold, giving good air
discharge and maximum condensate capacity on 'start-up' loads.
The liquid expansion trap can be used as a start-up drain trap on low pressure superheated steam
mains where a long cooling leg is guaranteed to flood with cooler condensate. It is able to
withstand vibration and waterhammer conditions.

Piping Department

Disadvantage
s

The flexible tubing of the element can be destroyed by corrosive condensate or superheat.
Since the liquid expansion trap discharges condensate at a temperature of 100C or below, it
should never be used on applications which demand immediate removal of condensate from the
steam space.
If the trap is to be subjected to freezing conditions the trap and its associated pipework must be
well insulated.
The liquid expansion trap is not normally a trapping solution on its own, as it usually requires
another steam trap to operate in parallel. However, it can often be used where start-up rate is not
an important consideration, such as when draining small tank heating coils.

Piping Department

Thermostatic Steam
Traps
Balanced pressure type

The trap will open whenever it is in contact with


anything that is cooler than condensate at the
pressure at which the plant is working.
It will therefore pass air whenever the air has
cooled to below steam temperature.
Balanced pressure traps are very light, small and
cheap.
They are not suitable for handling large quantities.
The expansion element consists of one or more
capsules or bellows.
This element expands and contracts in response
to temperature changes.

Piping Department

Operation of balanced
pressure steam trap
capsule

Advantage
s

The flexible tubing of the element can be destroyed by corrosive condensate or superheat.
Small, light and has a large capacity for its Size.
The valve is fully open on start-up, allowing air and other non-condensable gases to be discharged
freely and giving maximum condensate removal when the load is greatest.
This type of trap is unlikely to freeze when working in an exposed position (unless there is a rise in
the condensate pipe after the trap, which would allow water to run back and flood the trap when the
steam is off).
The modern balanced pressure trap automatically adjusts itself to variations of steam pressure up
to its maximum operating pressure. It will also tolerate up to 70C of superheat.
Trap maintenance is simple. The capsule and valve seat are easily removed, and replacements
can be fitted in a few minutes without removing the trap from the line.

Piping Department

Disadvantag
es

The older style balanced pressure steam traps had bellows which were susceptible to damage by
waterhammer or corrosive condensate.
Welded stainless steel capsules introduced more recently, are better able to tolerate such
conditions.
In common with all other thermostatic traps, the balanced pressure type does not open until the
condensate temperature has dropped below steam temperature (the exact temperature difference
being determined by the fluid used to fill the element).
This is clearly a disadvantage if the steam trap is chosen for an application in which waterlogging
of the steam space can not be tolerated, for example; mains drainage, heat exchangers, critical
tracing.

Piping Department

c) Thermodynamic Steam
traps
Thermodynamic traps work on the difference in dynamic response to velocity
change in flow of compressible and incompressible fluids.
As steam enters, static pressure above the disk forces the disk against the
valve seat. The static pressure over a large area overcomes the high inlet
pressure of the steam.
As the steam starts to condense, the pressure against the disk lessens and
the trap cycles. This essentially makes a TD trap a "time cycle" device: it will
open even if there is only steam present, this can cause premature wear. If
non condensable gas is trapped on top of the disc, it can cause the trap to
be locked shut.

Piping Department

Types of Thermodynamic Steam


Traps

Traditional disc type

Orifice type

Piping Department

Thermodynamic Steam
Traps
Traditional thermodynamic type

The trap operates by means


of the dynamic effect of flash
steam as it passes through
the trap. The only moving
part is the disc above the flat
face inside the control
chamber or cap.
On
start-up,
incoming
pressure raises the disc, and
cool condensate plus air is
immediately discharged from
the inner ring, under the disc,
and out through three
peripheral outlets (only 2
shown,
Figure
i).

At the same time, the flash steam pressure builds up


inside the chamber above the disc, forcing it down against
the incoming condensate until it seats on the inner and
outer rings. At this point, the flash steam is trapped in the
upper chamber, and the pressure above the disc equals
the pressure being applied to the underside of the disc
from the inner ring. However, the top of the disc is subject
to a greater force than the underside, as it has a greater
surface area.

Piping Department

Hot
condensate
flowing through the
inlet passage into the
chamber under the
disc
drops
in
pressure
and
releases flash steam
moving
at
high
velocity. This high
velocity creates a
low pressure area
under
the
disc,
drawing it towards its
seat (Figure 11.4.1,
ii).

Eventually the trapped pressure in the


upper chamber falls as the flash steam
condenses. The disc is raised by the now
higher condensate pressure and the
cycle repeats (Figure 11.4.1, iv).

Advantages

Thermodynamic traps can operate across their entire working range without any adjustment or
change of internals.
They are compact, simple, lightweight and have a large condensate capacity for their size.
Thermodynamic traps can be used on high pressure and superheated steam and are not affected
by waterhammer or vibration.
As the disc is the only moving part, maintenance can easily be carried out without removing the
trap from the line.

Piping Department

Disadvantages
Thermodynamic steam traps will not work positively on very low differential
pressures, as the velocity of flow across the underside of the disc is
insufficient for lower pressure to occur.

Piping Department

Thermodynamic Steam
Traps
Orifice Type

The basic principle behind this trap is that the expanded volume of
steam
compared to condensate has a throttling effect at the orifice.
These are devices containing a hole of predetermined diameter to
allow a
calculated amount of condensate to flow under specific pressure
conditions. In
practice, condensate loads and steam pressures can vary
considerably. For
instance, start-up and running loads can differ considerably along
with steam
pressure which will change due to the actions of temperature controls.
These
varying conditions can result in the fixed orifice either holding back
condensate
in the process or passing live steam, which can affect plant
Piping
Department and
performance

Thermodynamic Steam Traps


Orifice Type

Fixed orifices are often sized on running conditions, so that they hold
back
enough condensate and do not pass steam. If this is so, at start-up,
they are
undersized to a greater degree and the steam space stands a good
chance
of waterlogging.
The alternative is to size them so as not to waterlog during start-up.
The hole is then effectively oversized for running conditions, and the
device will pass steam. The size of hole is usually a compromise
between the two conditions, such that, at some points in between,
the hole is correctly sized.

Piping Department

Thermodynamic Steam
Traps
Orifice Type

Piping Department

Advantages

Can be used successfully when pressures and loads are constant.


There are no moving parts.

Disadvantages

Can be used successfully when pressures and loads are constant.


If sized on running load, fixed orifice traps will waterlog on start-up, reducing
plant performance over this period, increasing start-up times and the risk of
corrosion.
If sized on start-up load, fixed orifice traps will waste steam when the plant
is running, effectively increasing running costs.
Fixed orifice traps often block with dirt due to the small size of orifice.
The cost of replacing a heat exchanger due to corrosion will be far higher
than the cost of replacing the fixed orifice trap with a steam trap.
Note: Fixed orifice traps are not recommended for draining condensate
from any application susceptible to varying load conditions.

Piping Department

Applicable Codes and Standard

Pressure ratings per ANSI/FCI-69-1

Performance testing per ANSI/ASME PTC-39.1

End connections per ANSI B1.20 for threaded ends, per ANSI
B16.11 for socket welding ends.

Piping Department

Rupture Disk

Rupture Disc
A rupture disc or bursting disc is a pressure relief device that protects
a
vessel or system from over pressurization.

Piping Department

Rupture disc
assembly

Piping Department

Features

Rupture discs have a one-time-use membrane that fails at a


predetermined pressure, either positive or vacuum.

Rupture discs provide fast response to an increase in system


pressure but once the membrane has failed it will not reseal.

A rupture disk is just another pressure relieving device. It is used


for the same purpose as a relief valve, to protect a vessel or
system from overpressure that can cause catastrophic failure and
even a death.

Piping Department

When to use?

Rupture disks cost less than


relief valves. They generally
require little to no
maintenance.

A rupture disk is a non


reclosing device, which means
once it opens, it doesnt close.

Rupture disks are extremely


fast acting.

Piping Department

System contents can plug the


relief valve during relief.
High viscosity liquids.

Piping Department

Used as alone and with relief


valve
A stand-alone rupture disk is used when:

You are looking for capital and maintenance savings


You can afford to loose the system contents
The system contents are relatively benign
You need a pressure relief device that is fast acting
A relief valve is not suitable due to the nature of the system
contents

A rupture disk / relief valve combination is used when:

You need to ensure a positive seal of the system


The system contains solids that may plug the relief valve over
time

TO SAVE MONEY! If the system is a corrosive environment, the


rupture disk is specified with the more exotic and corrosion
Piping Department
resistant material

Construction
Material

Standard materials of construction are carbon steel and 316


Stainless Steel.

Commonly used: Inconel, Monel, Aluminium, Nickel, Hastelloy B


&C

Less Commonly used: Gold, Titanium, Platinum, Silver

Piping Department

Strainers

Strainers
Purpose
To protect the mechanical equipments such as pumps, condensers,
compressors, heat exchangers etc. from the detrimental effect of
sediment,
rust, pipe scale or other extraneous debris

Piping Department

Types of
Strainers
Mainly of 2 types according to their body configuration Y-type
Basket type

Piping Department

Y-Type Strainer

Its body has a compact cylindrical shape that is very strong and
can handle high pressures
Lower dirt holding capacity
Used where infrequent cleaning is required (difficult to clean)
Preferred for steam and other gases, also used in liquids
Can be installed horizontally as well as vertically

1. Body
2. Cover
3. Basket
4. Gasket
5. Plug
6. Gasket Plug
7. Bolts / Nuts

Piping Department

Y-Type Strainer

Piping Department

Basket Type

Pressure drop is less due to larger


free straining area
Preferred for liquids
Basket type strainer the preferred
type for liquid applications.
Greater dirt holding capacity
Can only be installed only in
horizontal pipelines

Piping Department

Criteria for
selection

Flow rate
Dirt holding Capacity
Size of perforation
Installation Orientation

Piping Department

Types of screens

Perforated screens Formed by punching a large number of


holes in a flat sheet of the required material using a multiple
punch. The perforated sheet is then rolled into a tube and spot
welded relatively coarse screens and hole sizes typically range
from 0.8 mm to 3.2 mm. Consequently, perforated screens are
only suitable for removing general pipe debris.

Mesh screens - Fine wire is formed into a grid or mesh


arrangement. This is then commonly layered over a perforated
screen, which acts as a support cage for the mesh.
By using a mesh screen, it is possible to produce much smaller
hole sizes than with perforated screens. Hole sizes as small as
0.07 mm are achievable. Subsequently, they are used to remove
smaller particles which would otherwise pass through a perforated
screen.

Piping Department

End
connections

Threaded
-Usually a tapered female pipe thread.
Flanged
Weld ends
- Socket weld are available upto 3
Special ends

Piping Department

Material of
Construction

Carbon steel
Body ASTM A216 Gr. WCB
Screen 304 Stainless Steel, ASTM A240
Gasket Spiral wound graphite filled
Cap
Forged steel A105N
Carbon steel ASTM A216 WCB
Bolts Carbon steel ASTM A193 B7
End connections- SCREWED NPT / SOCKET WELD or as per
customers specification.
Flanged to ANSI B16.5 or as per customers
specification

Stainless Steel
Body - ASTM A351 CF8M
Cap - ASTM A479 316L
Strainer screen -ASTM A240 316L
End connections- SCREWED NPT / SOCKET WELD or as per
customers specification.
Flanged to ANSI B16.5 or as per customers
specification
Piping Department

Datasheet

Type of Strainer (Simplex, Duplex, SelfCleaning)_____________________


Material of Construction (C.I., C.S., S.S.)
___________________________
Basket Perforation Size _________________________________________
Mesh Liner Desired, if so Mesh Size _______________________________
Open Area % Desired (if known) __________________________________
Maximum System Pressure Desired(PSI)___________________________
Maximum Operating Pressure (PSI) _______________________________
Maximum Pressure Drop Desired (If known)
_________________________
Flow in GPM _________________________________________________
Product to be Strained (Oil, Water, etc.)
____________________________
Viscosity (If other than water) ____________________________________
Specific Gravity (If other than water)
_______________________________
Pipe Size Desired in Inches ______________________________________
Other Information you want us to
Piping
Department
Consider
In Sizing/Recommendation ______________________________

Flame Arrestor

Flame
Arrestor

Passive devices
Allows gas to pass through but stops a flame in order to prevent a
large fire or explosion
Quench the flame by absorbing the heat of the flame
Use wound crimped metal ribbon type flame cell element.

All flame and detonation arrestors work on the same "heat


absorption" theory:
Disperse the flame front
Release its energy
Cool flame to below ignition point of the gas/vapour contained in
Flame arrestor
the system
element absorbs
Flame stabilised on
arrestor element

Exposed side

Piping Department

and quenches
flame front

Protected side

Contd.

The thin metal ribbons, or elements, draw the heat out of the gas
and conducts it to the surrounding environment. The triangular
channels divide the gas, exposing as much surface area as possible.
The triangular channels also help to break up the pressure wave,
thereby reducing the impact on equipment.
Elements consists of alternate layers of crimped and uncrimped
metal built into a circular frame
To quench a flame the height of the cells in the element are below
the MESG of the gas/ vapour therefore stopping onward passage.
The type of gas in the system and its corresponding gas group
determines the design of the arrestor element. The SS316L element
must be designed to accommodate the specific gas group that could
possibly ignite and propagate in the system. The available designs
consist of
International Electric Code (IEC) group gases
into IIC, IIB, IIA and I, the National Electric Code
(NEC) groups gases into A, B, C and D categories
depending on the MESG value of the gas.
Piping Department

Factors affecting flame propagation

Pipe lengths, bends or flow obstructions.


Initial operating pressure
Flame stabilization on the element.
MESG value of a gas

Piping Department

Types

End-of-line (vent to atmosphere)


- for unconfined low pressure deflagrations
- installed in furnace air inlets and exhaust stacks.

In-line
- deflagration
- detonation

Designed, manufactured and tested according to API2000 and


BS7244

Piping Department

Selection
criteria

For end-of-line flame arrestor


- hazardous group designation
- Process gas temperature
- material of construction
- Connection type and size
- Flame stabilization performance characteristics

For in-line flame arrestor


- Location of the ignition source from the arrestor
- What needs to be protected
- Initial operating pressure

Piping Department

Material of
construction

Housing construction - Aluminium, Cast Iron, Cast Steel, 304ss and


316Lss.
Flame cell element - 316Lss in a crimped ribbon form

Body
Element Ring
Element
Standard Coating

Piping Department

Standard Design
C.I
S.S

Special Design
Welded C.S
S.S &AL
S.S
S.S

316L S.S
Inside and outside epoxy 250 micron without S.S & Al Part.

Installatio
n

To be mounted either vertically or at angle to allow for fluid drain.


To avoid blockage or increased pressure drop due to plugging off
of the cell

Piping Department

DATA SHEET

Thank You!