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Duct is to convey the air between points in a R and AC

The chief requirements of an air conditioning duct system
1. It should convey specified rates of air flow to
prescribed locations
2. It should be economical in combined initial cost, fan
operating cost and cost of building space
3. It should not transmit or generate objectionable noise

General rules for duct design:

1. Air should be conveyed as directly as possible to save space,
power and material
2. Sudden changes in directions should be avoided. When not
possible to avoid sudden changes, turning vanes should be used
to reduce pressure loss
3. Diverging sections should be gradual.
4. Aspect ratio should be as close to 1.0 as possible. Normally, it
should not exceed 4
5. Air velocities should be within permissible limits to reduce
noise and vibration
6. Duct material should be as smooth as possible to reduce
frictional losses

Losses through Ducts

1. Frictional Losses
2. Dynamic losses
. Change in direction
.Sudden expansion losses
Aspect Ratio
.The ratio of the two sides a and b of the rectangle (a/b)
is called as aspect ratio of the duct.
.For the same cross sectional area. Surface of cylinder
lesser than that of cuboid.
.More the surface area more is the heat transfer.

Estimation of pressure loss in ducts:

As air flows through a duct its total pressure drops in the
direction of flow. The pressure drop is due to:
1. Fluid friction
2. Momentum change due to change of direction and/or
. Evaluation of frictional pressure drop in ducts
The Darcy-Weisbach equation is one of the most
commonly used equations for estimating frictional
pressure drops in internal flows.

Dynamic losses
1. Turns, bends or elbows
2. Branch take-offs
3. Branch entries
4. Sudden enlargement
5. Sudden contraction

Duct Material
1. Galvanized sheets
2. Aluminum sheets
3. Black steel
.Classification of duct systems:
.Low pressure systems: Velocity 10 m/s, static pressure
5 cm H2O
.Medium pressure systems: Velocity 10 m/s, static
pressure 15 cm H2O (g)
.High pressure systems: Velocity > 10 m/s, static pressure
15<ps 25 cm H2O (g)

High velocities in the ducts results in:

1. Smaller ducts and hence, lower initial cost and lower space
2. Higher pressure drop and hence larger fan power consumption
3. Increased noise and hence a need for noise attenuation
Recommended air velocities depend mainly on the application
and the noise criteria.
Typical recommended velocities are:
Residences: 3 m/s to 5 m/s
Theatres: 4 to 6.5 m/s
Restaurants: 7.5 m/s to 10 m/s

Bernoullis equation is valid between any two points in

the flow field when the flow is steady, irrotational,
inviscid and incompressible.
Between any two points 1 and 2 in the flow field
for irrotational flows, the Bernoullis equation is
written as:

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