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Acids & Bases

Acids:
acids are sour tasting
Arrhenius acid:
acid Any substance that, when dissolved
in water, increases the concentration of hydronium
ion (H3O+)
Bronsted-Lowry acid:
acid A proton donor
Lewis acid:
acid An electron acceptor
Bases:
bases are bitter tasting and slippery
Arrhenius base:
base Any substance that, when dissolved
in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide
ion (OH-)
Bronsted-Lowery base:
base A proton acceptor
Lewis acid:
acid An electron donor

Lone Hydrogen ions do not exist by themselves in


solution. H+ is always bound to a water molecule
to form a hydronium ion

Brnsted-Lowry Theory of Acids & Bases


Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

General Equation

Brnsted-Lowry Theory of Acids & Bases

Brnsted-Lowry Theory of Acids & Bases

Brnsted-Lowry Theory of Acids & Bases


Notice that water is both an
acid & a base = amphoteric

Reversible reaction

ELECTROLYTES

Electrolytes are species which conducts electricity when


dissolved in water. Acids, Bases, and Salts are all
electrolytes.
Salts and strong Acids or Bases form Strong Electrolytes.
Salt and strong acids (and bases) are fully dissociated
therefore all of the ions present are available to conduct
electricity.
HCl(s) + H2O H3O+ + ClWeak Acids and Weak Bases for Weak Electrolytes. Weaks
electrolytes are partially dissociated therefore not all
species in solution are ions, some of the molecular form
is present. Weak electrolytes have less ions avalible to
conduct electricity.
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH-

Acids & Bases


STRONG

vs

WEAK

_ completely ionized

_ partially ionized
_ strong electrolyte
_ weak electrolyte
_ ionic/very polar bonds _ some covalent bonds

Strong Acids: Strong Bases:


HClO4 LiOH
H2SO4 NaOH
HI KOH
HBr
Ca(OH)2
HCl
Sr(OH)2
HNO3
Ba(OH)2

Acids & Bases


One ionizable proton:
HCl H+ + Cl Two ionizable protons:
H2SO4 H+ + HSO4HSO4- H+ + SO42 Three ionizable protons:
H3PO4 H+ + H2PO4
H2PO4- H+ + HPO42HPO42- H+ + PO4-3

Combined:
H2SO4 2H+ + SO42-

Combined:
H3PO4 3H+ + PO43-

Acids & Bases


For the following identify the acid and the base as strong or weak .

a. Al(OH)3 + HCl
Weak base

Strong acid

b. Ba(OH)2 +
Strong base

HC2H3O2
Weak acid

c. KOH + H2SO4
Strong base Strong acid

d. NH3 + H2O
Weak base Weak acid

Acids & Bases


For the following predict the product. To check your answer left click
on the mouse. Draw a mechanism detailing the proton movement.

a. Al(OH)3 + 3 HCl AlCl3 + 3 H2O


b. Ba(OH)2 + 2 HC2H3O2 Ba(C2H3O2)2 + 2 H2O
c. 2KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2 H2O
+
NH
+
OH
d. NH3 + H2O
4

Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

Acids & Bases


For the following Identify the conjugate acid and the conjugate base.
The conjugate refers to the acid or base produced in an acid/base
reaction. The acid reactant produces its conjugate base (CB).
CB

a. Al(OH)3 + 3 HCl AlCl3 + 3 H2O


CB

CA

b. Ba(OH)2 + 2 HC2H3O2 Ba(C2H3O2)2 + 2 H2O


CB

c. 2 KOH + H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2 H2O


CB

d. NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OHCA

CB

CA

CA

TITRATION
Titration of a strong acid with a strong base

ENDPOINT = POINT OF NEUTRALIZATION =


EQUIVALENCE POINT
At the end point for the titration of a strong acid with a strong
base, the moles of acid (H+) equals the moles of base (OH-) to
produce the neutral species water (H2O). If the mole ratio in
the balanced chemical equation is 1:1 then the following
equation can be used.
MOLES OF ACID = MOLES OF BASE

nacid = nbase
Since M=n/V

MAVA = MBVB

TITRATION
MAVA = MBVB
1. Suppose 75.00 mL of hydrochloric acid was required to
neutralize 22.50 mLof 0.52 M NaOH. What is the molarity of
the acid?
HCl + NaOH H2O + NaCl
Ma Va = Mb Vb rearranges to Ma = Mb Vb / Va
so Ma = (0.52 M) (22.50 mL) / (75.00 mL)
= 0.16 M
Now you try:
2. If 37.12 mL of 0.843 M HNO3 neutralized 40.50 mL of KOH,
what is the molarity of the base?
Mb = 0.773 mol/L

Molarity and Titration

TITRATION
Titration of a strong acid with a strong base

ENDPOINT = POINT OF NEUTRALIZATION =


EQUIVALENCE POINT
At the end point for the titration of a strong acid with a strong
base, the moles of acid (H+) equals the moles of base (OH-)
to produce the neutral species water (H2O). If the mole
ratio in the balanced chemical equation is NOT 1:1 then
you must rely on the mole relationship and handle the
problem like any other stoichiometry problem.
MOLES OF ACID = MOLES OF BASE

nacid = nbase

TITRATION
1. If 37.12 mL of 0.543 M LiOH neutralized 40.50 mL
of H2SO4, what is the molarity of the acid?
2 LiOH + H2SO4 Li2SO4 + 2 H2O
First calculate the moles of base:
0.03712 L LiOH (0.543 mol/1 L) = 0.0202 mol LiOH
Next calculate the moles of acid:
0.0202 mol LiOH (1 mol H2SO4 / 2 mol LiOH)= 0.0101 mol H2SO4
Last calculate the Molarity:
Ma = n/V = 0.010 mol H2SO4 / 0.4050 L = 0.248 M

2. If 20.42 mL of Ba(OH)2 solution was used to


titrate29.26 mL of 0.430 M HCl, what is the molarity
of the barium hydroxide solution?
Mb = 0.308 mol/L

Molarity and Titration


A student finds that 23.54 mL of a 0.122 M
NaOH solution is required to titrate a 30.00-mL
sample of hydr acid solution. What is the
molarity of the acid?
A student finds that 37.80 mL of a 0.4052 M
NaHCO3 solution is required to titrate a 20.00mL sample of sulfuric acid solution. What is the
molarity of the acid?
The reaction equation is:
H2SO4 + 2 NaHCO3 Na2SO4 + 2 H2O + 2 CO2

Water Equilibrium

Water Equilibrium
Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14
Equilibrium constant for water
Water or water solutions in which [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7 M
are neutral solutions.
A solution in which [H+] > [OH-] is acidic
A solution in which [H+] < [OH-] is basic

pH
A measure of the hydronium ion
The scale for measuring the hydronium ion concentration
[H3O+] in any solution must be able to cover a large range. A
logarithmic scale covers factors of 10. The p in pH stands for
log.
A solution with a pH of 1 has [H3O+] of 0.1 mol/L or 10-1
A solution with a pH of 3 has [H3O+] of 0.001 mol/L or 10-3
A solution with a pH of 7 has [H3O+] of 0.0000001 mol/L or 10-7

pH = - log [H3O+]

The pH scale
The pH scale ranges from 1 to 10-14 mol/L or from 1
to 14.

pH = - log [H3O+]
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
acid
neutral
base

Manipulating pH
Algebraic manipulation of:

pH = - log [H3O+]
allows for:

[H3O+] = 10-pH
If pH is a measure of the hydronium ion concentration
then the same equations could be used to describe
the hydroxide (base) concentration.

[OH-] = 10-pOH

pOH = - log [OH-]

thus:

pH + pOH = 14 ; the entire pH range!

PRACTICE PROBLEM #25


1. How many milliliters of 1.25 M LiOH must be added to neutralize
34.7 mL of 0.389 M HNO3?

10.8 mL

2. What mass of Sr(OH)2 will be required to neutralize 19.54 mL of


0.00850 M HBr solution?

0.0101 g

3. How many mL of 0.998 M H2SO4 must be added to neutralize 47.9


mL of 1.233 M KOH?
29.6 mL
4. What is the molar concentration of hydronium ion in a solution of
pH 8.25?
-9

5.623 x 10 M

5. What is the pH of a solution that has a molar concentration of


hydronium ion of 9.15 x 10-5?

pH = 4.0

6. What is the pOH of a solution that has a molar concentration of


hydronium ion of 8.55 x 10-10? pOH = 4.9

GROUP STUDY PROBLEM #25


______1. How many milliliters of 0.75 M KOH must be added to neutralize
50.0 mL of 2.50 M HCl?
______2. What mass of Ca(OH)2 will be required to neutralize 100 mL of
0.170 M HCl solution?
______3. How many mL of 0.554 M H2SO4 must be added to neutralize
25.0 mL of 0.9855 M NaOH?
______ 4. What is the molar concentration of hydronium ion in a solution
of pH 2.45?
______ 5. What is the pH of a solution that has a molar concentration of
hydronium ion of 3.75 x 10-9?
______ 6. What is the pOH of a solution that has a molar concentration of
hydronium ion of 4.99 x 10-4?