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IS 802 RECOMMENDATIONS

ON WIND LOAD ON
TRANSMISSION LINE
TOWERS

(IS802 (Partl/Sec 1):1995)


Indian Standard
USE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL IN
OVERHEAD
TRANSMISSION LINE TOWERS CODE OF PRACTICE
PART 1 MATERIALS, LOADS AND
PERMISSIBLE STRESSES
Section 1 Materials and Loads

Basic Wind Speed, Vb


Ref: IS 875 (3) WIND MAP

Meteorological Reference Wind Speed, VR

Design Wind Speed, Vd

Risk coefficient K1 depends on the basic wind


speed Vb (or wind zone) and the reliability level

Reliability level 1 shall be adopted for EHV


transmission lines up to 400 kV class.
Reliability level 2 shall be adopted for EHV
transmission lines above 400 kV class. Triple
and quadruple circuit towers up to 400 kV
lines shall be designed corresponding to the
reliability level 2.
Reliability level 3 shall be adopted for tall
river crossing towers and special towers

Terrain Roughness Coefficient, K2

Design Wind Pressure, Pd


The design wind pressure on towers,
conductors and insulators shall be
obtained by the following relationship :

Wind Load on Tower


the tower is divided into different panels
having a height h. (normally be taken
between the intersections of the legs and
bracings).
For a lattice tower of square cross section,
the resultant wind load Fwt in Newtons, for
wind normal to the longitudinal face of
tower, on a panel height h applied at the
centre of gravity of this panel is:

Pd = design wind pressure, in N/m 2


Cdt = drag coefficient for panel under
consideration against which the wind is
blowing.

Ae = total net surface area of the legs, bracings,


cross arms and secondary members of the
panel projected normal to the face in m 2
GT = gust response factor,

Wind Load on Conductor and Ground wire

WIND LOAD ON ROAD


BRIDGES
(IRC 6 Section II 1966)

The lateral wind force against any exposed


moving live load shall be considered as
acting at 1.5 m above the roadway and shall
be assumed to have the following values

While calculating the wind force on live load, the clear


distance between the trailers of a train of vehicles
shall not be omitted.

WIND LOAD ON COOLING


TOWERS

IS : 11504 - 1985

Indian Standard
CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN OF
REINFORCED CONCRETE
NATURAL
DRAUGHT COOLING TOWERS

Wind Pressure
The basic wind pressure shall, in general, conform
to IS : 875-1964* excepting in places where local
conditions warrant special investigations
The wind pressure coefficient distribution on the
shell should preferably be derived from wind tunnel
tests of a model of the proposed tower shell shape
the wind pressure distribution for cooling towers
not more than 100 m in height and not more than
120 m in base diameter built singly or in groups
spaced at clear distance of not less than 0.5 times
the base diameter of the largest cooling tower in
the group can be computed as follows

The wind pressure distribution on the


outside of the shell is assumed to be
symmetrical about the centre line in the
direction of wind.
For practical design these values may be
increased by 10 percent to take into
account geometrical imperfections

The wind pressure coefficient distribution


around the shell is defined by the following
equation

Pressure Fluctuations
The steady pressure coefficients discussed
earlier are for uniform pressure distribution in
laboratory conditions and further allowances
should be made in assessing the wind
loading for
load intensification due to natural turbulence
in the incident wind, and
load intensification due to turbulence induced
in the incident wind by adjacent cooling
towers in a group or of the structures of
significant dimension in the vicinity

WIND LOAD ON RC CHIMNEYS


IS 4998 ( Part 1) : 1992

Indian Standard
CRITERIA FOR DESIGN OF
REINFORCED
CONCRETE CHIMNEYS
PART 1 ASSESSMENT OF LOADS

ESTIMATION OF WIND LOADS


TWO METHODS
The first is a simplified method and is likely
to yield slightly conservative results as far
as across wind loads are concerned.
The second method is based on random
response method.
The wind loads shall be estimated by
both the methods and the loading
which yields higher moments shall be
considered for design of chimneys.

SIMPLIFIED METHOD
1. Along-Wind Load or Drag Force
The along-wind load or drag force per unit
height of the chimney at any level shall be
calculated from the equation

The design wind pressure ( pz ), for the along


wind response, shall be obtained in
accordance with IS 875 ( Part 3 ) ; 1987,
taking the appropriate factor depending upon
the class of the structure as defined in that
standard.
The chimney shall be divided into ten or more
sections along its height and the load at any
section shall be calculated by suitably
averaging the loads above and below it.

The moments are calculated from the


sectional forces treating the chimney as a
free standing structure

RANDOM RESPONSE METHOD


Along-Wind Load on a Chimney
along-wind response of a chimney shall
also be calculated by the Gust Factor
method
The use of the Gust Factor method
requires a knowledge of Hourly Mean
Wind Speed ( HMW ).
Hourly mean wind speed at any height (z),
shall be obtained as per IS 875 ( Part 3 ) :
1987

WIND LOAD ON STEEL CHIMNEYS


IS 6533 (Part 2) : 1989

Indian Standard
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION OF STEEL CHIMNEY
PART 2 STRUCTURAL ASPECT

The wind loads shall be calculated in


accordance with the provisions contained
in IS 875 (Part 3) : 1987
Wind force on ladders and other fixtures
fixed to a chimney shall be determined
and added to the force on the chimney

Calculation of Static Wind Load


Static wind pressure, q, acting normal to
the surface of chimney shall be taken as
specified in IS 875 (Part 3) : 1987 for the
appropriate wind zone, terrain and
topography
the chimney height shall be divided into a
number of convenient zones such that the
number of zones shall not be less than
three and the zone height shall not exceed
10 m

Static wind force acting at the midpoint of


Kth zone ( K varying from 1 to r ) shall be
calculated from the formula

Calculation of Dynamic Wind Loads


Dynamic effect of wind is influenced by a
number of factors, such as, mass and its
disposition along chimney height, period
and
mode
of
natural
oscillation,
Logarithmic decrement of dampening,
pulsation of velocity thrust, etc.
Values of dynamic components of wind
load should be determined for each mode
of oscillation of the chimney as a system
of inertia forces acting at the centre of the
zone being considered.

WIND LOAD ON RAILWAY BRIDGES


BRIDGE RULES
(IN SI UNITS)

RULES SPECIFYING THE LOADS FOR


DESIGN OF SUPER-STRUCTURE AND SUBSTRUCTURE OF BRIDGES AND FOR ASSESSMENT
OF THE STRENGTH OF EXISTING BRIDGES

For purposes of design where no


meteorological records are available, the
Map as given in IS: 875 (Part 3) in
conjunction with the Table therein, may be
used for determining the basic wind
pressures.

The wind pressure specified above shall apply


to all loaded or unloaded bridges provided that
a bridge shall not be considered to be carrying
any live load when the wind pressure at deck
level exceeds the following limits:

The wind load shall be computed from the


appropriate basic wind pressure and the
exposed area
exposed area
For unloaded spans net exposed area
shall be considered as one and half times
the projected area of the span, except for
plate girders for which the area of the
leeward girder shall be multiplied by the
factors based on its depth and the
distance from the windward girder

For loaded spans the net exposed area


shall be computed as the sum of (i) and (ii)
(i) as detailed above
(ii) The projected area of the moving load
In the case of railway bridges: the area of
the moving load shall be taken as from
600mm above rail level to the top of the
highest stock for which the bridge is
designed
In the case of foot bridges: the height of
the moving load is to be taken as 2m
throughout the length of the span