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Emotions at the workplace

Types of emotions

Felt Emotions These are the individual actual emotion.

Displayed Emotions- These are the emotion that are

organizationally required and considered appropriate in a
given job.

Surface Acting It means hiding ones inner feeling and

forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.

Deep Acting It means trying to modify ones true inner

feelings based on display rules.

Emotions are intense feelings directed towards

something or someone
Emotional dissonance- projecting one emotion
while feeling another
Instant messaging and emotions
Emotional Contagion
Emotional Intelligence

Impact of emotions
Positive emotions
Increased creativity
Encourage helping behavior and cooperation
Reduce aggression against organization and people
Leads to accuracy in the work
Negative emotions
Aggression towards colleagues
Dissatisfaction with the job
Frequent fights

Emotion and workplace

Intellectual capital- Emotions directly affect

intellectual functioning
Customer service- If service workers are angry,
unhappy or the like no amount of training will
offset the service climate that their emotions create
Organizational responsiveness- Emotions affect
how fast and flexible people are in their response
Employee attraction and retention- The happier
the employees are the more they would like to
continue with the organization

Emotion & Cognition

Inverse relationship between emotion and thinking

When emotion is high (or intense) thinking will be
Physiological reason
Blood flow is altered from cognitive to emotional
areas (Drevets & Raichle, 1998)
Attention is diverted to the strongest emotion
(Marsella & Gratch, 2002)

Emotion at five levels of organization

5. Organization-wide
Organizational policies; requirement for emotional labor;
stress and wellbeing; emotional climate and culture
4. Groups
Affective composition; emotionally intelligent groups;
emotional contagion; leader-member exchange
3. Interpersonal Interactions
Emotional labor; emotional exchange;
displayed vs. felt emotion
2. Between persons
Trait affectivity, affective commitment; job
satisfaction; burnout; emotional intelligence
1. Within-person
State affect; affective events;
discrete emotions; mood; behaviors

Generating Positive Emotions at Work

The emotions-attitudes-behavior model illustrates that

attitudes are shaped by ongoing emotional experiences.

Thus, successful companies actively create more positive

than negative emotional episodes.

Emotional Quotient

Emotional Intelligence is a major determinant of

human behavior. EQ is the measure of EI.

Emotional Intelligence is directly correlated with job

performance and job satisfaction.

Most of the components of emotional intelligence

are highly valued in Indian culture and traditions.

Can be learned, especially through coaching

EI increases with age -- maturity

Today recruiting managers make sure that

the candidates have high level of EQ

Does he have the maturity and independence to

follow a project to completion?
Can he motivate and lead a group of his peers?
Does he genuinely care about the company s values
and goals?
Will he be sensitive towards the needs of a troubled
Can he control his anger when his supervisor is rude
to him?

According to Goleman, to be successful in life , one needs to

have 20% of IQ and 80 % of EQ.

Five Components of EI at Workplace

Self awareness
Social Skills

# Emotional Intelligence has its roots in the

concept of social intelligence
# Inter-personal Intelligence is the ability to
understand other people ; what motivates
them, how they work, how to work cooperatively with them.
# Emotional Intelligence emphasizes empathy,
self-control etc.

Emotional Labor Across Cultures

Displaying or hiding emotions varies across


Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in

Korea, Japan, Austria
Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt,
Spain, Russia

Emotional Labor

Effort, planning and control needed to express

organizationally desired emotions during
interpersonal transactions.

Emotional labor higher when job requires:

frequent and long duration display of emotions

displaying a variety of emotions
displaying more intense emotions

Emotional Labor Challenges

Difficult to display expected emotions accurately,

and to hide true emotions

Emotional dissonance

Conflict between true and required emotions

Potentially stressful with surface acting
Less stress through deep acting