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Chapter 24

Last Homecoming and Trial

Presented by:
Capati, May Ann
Guarin, Eduardo
Lozano, Ricalyn
Mangio, Tracy

Rizals homecoming in 1896,

the last in his life, was his
saddest return to his beloved

Since leaving Barcelona on Tuesday, October 6,

1896, Rizal conscientously recorded the events in
his diary.
On October 8, an officer told Rizal about the
revolution in the Philippines from the Madrid

The Spanish authorities suspicion was

aroused by Rizals writing in on his diary and
so confiscated it on October 11 and was
returned on Sunday, November 1.

News of Rizals predicament reached his friends

from Europe and Singapore.
From London, Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto
Lopez dispatched telegrams to an English lawyer
Hugh Fort to rescue him by means of a writ of
habeas corpus

Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor

Sixto Lopez

Awrit of habeas
corpus(literally to
"produce the body")
is a court order to a
person (prison
warden) or agency
(institution) holding
someone in custody
to deliver the
individual to the
court issuing the

Chief Justice Lionel Cox denied the writ on the

ground that the Colon was carrying Spanish troops
to the Philippines.
Rizal was unaware of the attempt to rescue him.

On November 3, the Colon reached Manila.

Rizal was quietly transferred to Fort Santiago.
Meanwhile, the Spanish authorities fished for
evidence against Rizal and many Filipino patriots
including his own brother Paciano.

On November 20 the preliminary

investigation began.
Rizal appeared before the Judge
Advocate, Colonel Francisco Olive.
The two kinds of evidence
presented against Rizal were
documentary and testimonial.
The documentary evidence
consisted of 15 exhibits of letters,
transcripts, literary works and a
Masonic document.

Colonel Francisco Olive

On November 26, Colonel Olive transmitted the records

to Governor General Ramon Blanco and the letter
appointed Captain Rafael Dominguez as special Judge

Governor General Ramon Blanco

When the papers reached Judge Advocate General Don

Nicolas de la Pea submitted the following
1. The accused be immediately brought to trial.
2. He should e kept in prison
3. An order of attachment be issued against his property to
the amount of one million pesos as indemnity
4. He should be defended in court by an army officer not
by a civilian lawyer.

The only right given to rizal was to choose his

defense counsel. He must choose from a list given
to him.
On December 8, was given to Rizal and he chose
the familiar Don Luis Taviel de Andrade, the brother
of Lieutenant Jose Taviel de Andrade.

Don Luis Taviel de Andrade

On December 11, the charges read to Rizal in his

prison cell, with his counsel present.
Dominguez forwarded Rizals case to the
Malacaang Palace on Decemer 13 same day that
General Blanco withdrawn as the Governor General.

General Camilo de Polavieja

On December 15, Rizal wrote a manifesto to

his people appealing to them to stop the
necessary shedding of blood and to achieve
their liberties by means of education and
It was suppressed by the recommendation of
General Pea to Governor General Polavieja.

The last Christmas of Rizals life on

December 25, 1896 was dark and
cheerless. He found himself alone and
depressed in his cell.

The trial of Rizal was an eloquent proof of Spanish injustice

and misrule.
Rizal, a civilian was tried by military court composed of
alien military officers.
He was considered guilty before the actual trial.
The military court met not to give him justice but to accuse
and condemn him.
They accepted all charges against him and ignored
arguments and proofs in his favor .
He was not given the right to face the witnesses against
him in open court.
At 8:00 am, December 26, 1896, the court-martial of Rizal
started in the military building called Cuartel de Espaa.

Rizal sat on a bench between two soldiers with arms tied elbow to elbow,
dressed in suit, white vest, and tie. He was calm and dignified in
The trial was opened by Judge Advocate Dominguez followed by a
speech by Prosecuting Attorney Alcocer.
Defense Counsel Taviel de Andrade read his defense of Rizal.
Rizal read a supplement to his defense with 12 points that he wrote in his
The court remained indifferent to his pleading and Lt. Col. Togores Arjona
considered the trial over.
After deliberation the court voted for the sentence of death.
On the same day the decision was submitted to Governor General
Polavieja and immediately soght the opinion of Judge Advocate General
Nicolas de la Pea. The latter affirmed his verdict.

After deliberation the court voted for the

sentence of death.
On the same day the decision was submitted to
Governor General Polavieja that sought the
opinion of Judge Advocate General Nicolas de la
The latter affirmed his verdict.

On December 28th, Polavieja approved the

decision of the court-martial and ordered
Rizal to be shot at 7:00 oclock in the morning
of December 30 at Bagumbayan Field

For signing the fatal document ordering the

execution of Dr. Rizal, Governor General
Polavieja won the eternal odium of the Filipino