Sie sind auf Seite 1von 59

FORMULATION OF NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

BY Eng. M S S Fernando Senior Deputy Director Sri Lanka Standards Institution.

2015-02-13 (IESL)

STANDARD

Document established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results.

Level of Standardizations

Individual Company Association National Regional International

Standards are established by:

Manufacturer/Service provider for their customers Purchasers Voluntary co-operative bodies for specific sectors National bodies established for that purpose Regional economic bodies at the global level International bodies at the apex level Regulatory bodies

Standards formulation in SLSI

Standards required by trade & Industry and for consumer protection and development activities

Works handled by two Divisions

- Engineering (Civil, Mechanical, Electrical & Electronics including IT)

- Scientific (Food & Agri, Chemical & Cosmetics, Textile & Garments)

International standards adopted whenever applicable.

The objective of SLSI shall be (as per the Act.)

To prepare standards on national and international basis relating to structures, commodities, products, materials, practices and operations and from time to time revise, alter and amend the same and promote the general adoption of such standards.

Standards formulation process

The standards are established by a process of consultation with consumers, manufacturers, technologists scientists and officials through duly constituted committees.

Formulation project stages

Proposal acceptance and allocation of project Planning stage Committee stage Circulation stage Final committee approval stage Council approval stage Printing

Proposal stage

Requests may come from:

Ministries Consumers Producers Industries/Associations Other divisions of SLSI Members of WG/SC Sister organizations

Sectoral Committees

Sectoral Committees are approval by the council of SLSI Members from:

-Manufacturers -Users/consumers -Government departments -Technologists -Testing experts -Consultants / universities -Other experts

Role of Standards Engineers /Officers

For effective & efficient functioning of Working Group and Sectoral Committees:

Planning

Organizing & coordinating activities

Collection & presentation of data from industry, international or other national standards, and books web sites or any other relevant sources.

Role of Standards Engineers / Officers (Cont’d)

Arranging laboratory tests, trials and investigations

Conducting industrial surveys Arranging meetings Submission of documents Preparation of minutes

Provide executive assistance to each Sectoral Committee / Working Group

Committee Stage

Preliminary draft shall be circulated to all members of the Sectoral Committee/Working Group and shall be discussed and get their comments.

The decision to approve the Working Draft shall be taken on the basis of the consensus principle. Once it approved, it goes for public circulation as a draft standard.

Public circulation stage

Public circulation

Public circulation stage Public circulation Dinamina Daily News Thinakaran  Two calendar months  A copy
Public circulation stage Public circulation Dinamina Daily News Thinakaran  Two calendar months  A copy

Dinamina Daily News Thinakaran

Two calendar months

A copy of the draft standard is available for public on request

Comments received are complied and put up to the committee.

Review of Comments

The Sectoral Committee reviews all comments on the draft standard and decides incorporation of comments

The decision to approve the Working draft shall be taken on the basis of the consensus principle

Approval Stage

  • - The draft approved by Sectoral Committee is submitted for the Council approval

  • - After the Council approval it become a National Standard of Sri Lanka and allocate a unique No. to it with the year of publication

Amendments

The issue of amendments to Sri Lanka Standards is kept to the minimum for the maintenance of clear and correct publication

However if it is essential to correct error or technology enhancement, amendments could be made

Amendment procedure

- Typographical errors and reference changes are corrected as a matter of routine by issue of Corrigendum

- The technical amendment which alters and/or adds to previously agreed technical provisions in an existing Sri Lanka Standard requires Committee approval

- The amendments require approval of the relevant Sectoral Committee

Revision of Standard

When no of Amendments are made, then the use of standard becomes difficult. Then it should be revised incorporating all amendments (generally after five amendments)

And also when the technical provisions needs considerable changes committee decide to revise the standard.

Revision also follows routine procedure for new project.

Systematic review

Every standard needs to be reviewed periodically after publication. When reviewing a standard committee has the following options:

Reaffirmation indicating continuing current standard without change

Amendment and reaffirmation indicating the continuing current standard after necessary changes to bring it up date

Revision involving the routine procedure for new project.

Withdrawal indicating that the standard is no longer needed.

CONTENTS AND PRESENTATION OF STANDARD

Scope

Every standard commence with a “Scope”

Indicate the form of standardization

Define subject of documents and aspects covered

Limit of applicability

Shall not contain requirements

References

A complete list of other standards and documents which are indispensable for the application of the standard. It shall include the designation number and the title of the standard.

For dated reference, only the edition cited applies. For undated references the latest version of the reference document (including any amendment) shall apply.

Terms and definitions

Give definitions necessary for the understanding of certain terms used in the standard.

In some cases it shall referred to definitions given in another standard

Requirements

Raw materials

Characteristics required

Limits for these characteristics

Reference to the test methods to be used to determine the characteristics.

Marking and Labeling

Contents

Manufacturer’s name and address and/or trade mark

Model or type

Lot no. for traceability

Sizes and grades

Requirements for labeling (e.g. handling instructing, hazard warnings, date of manufacture)

The means of presentation of such markings (name plates, labels, stamps etc)

Location of marking

Methods of test

In a specification any description of a test method comprising no. of paragraphs should preferably be given in an appendix rather than in the text.

Sampling

The definition of ‘Lot’ and other terms pertaining to sampling

Scale of sampling and the procedure to be adopted in drawing samples.

Conditions for maintaining samples till the time of testing

Number of samples to be tested with respect to each characteristic

Criteria for conformity

Standards shall be so written that conformity can be assessed by a manufacturer or supplier (first party), a user or purchaser (second party) or an independent body (thirty party).

The world’s largest development of voluntary Standards

OBJECTIVES

To promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity

WHY ISO STANDARDS?

ISO standards make the development, manufacturing and supply of products and services more efficient, safer and cleaner. They make trade between countries easier and fairer

They provide governments with a technical base for health, safety and environmental legislation

They furnish tools for meeting the challenges of sustainable development

They aid in transferring technology to developing countries

They safeguard users and consumers, and make many aspects of their lives simpler

DIVERSIFIED SCOPE

Published more than 19000 International Standards, including the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 families

Includes entire range of business and technology from standards for traditional activities, such as agriculture and construction, through mechanical engineering, to medical devices, banking cards and toys, to the latest information technology developments.

Develops standards to meet market requirements. The work is carried out by more than 3000 technical bodies, involving some 35 000 experts coming from government agencies, consumer organizations, educational establishments and testing laboratories

Experience of International Consensus Building

ISO standards are voluntary, the facts that they are developed in response to market demands, and are based on consensus among the interested parties, ensures widespread use of the standards.

Experience of International Consensus Building

ISO standards are voluntary, the facts that they are developed in response to market demands, and are based on consensus among the interested parties, ensures widespread use of the standards.

International & Regional Acceptance and Networking

ISO is able to act as a bridging organization in

which a consensus can be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society, such as the needs of stakeholder groups like users including consumers

Members

The national body of each country is accepted for membership of ISO. Member bodies are entitled to participate and exercise full voting right on any technical committee of ISO, are eligible for Council membership and have seats in the General Assembly.

More than 70% of the ISO member bodies are governmental institutions or organizations incorporated by public law. The remainder have close links with the public administration in their own countries.

A correspondent member is usually an organization in a country which does not yet have a fully developed national standards activity. Correspondent members do not take an active part in the technical and policy development work of interest to them.

Subscriber membership for countries with very small economies.

These subscriber members pay reduced membership fees nevertheless allow them to maintain contact with international Standardization

Technical Work

A proposal to begin work in a new field of technical activity normally comes from within ISO itself, but it may also originate from some other international organization.

The decision to establish a Technical Committee is taken by Technical Management Board.

Each technical committee may, in turn, establish Subcommittees (s) and Working Groups (WG) to cover different aspects of its work.

Member bodies which decide to take an active participation in the work of a technical committee or subcommittee are designated as P-members (participating members) of that committee or subcommittee. They have an obligation to vote and, whenever possible, to attend meetings.

One of the P-members is designated to act as the secretariat of the committee or subcommittee.

Member bodies which wish only to be kept informed of the work of a technical committee or subcommittee are registered as O-members (observers)

How an international Standards are

A result of an agreement between the

Developed?

member bodies of ISO

Confirmation of the market requirement for such a standard.

ISO Central Secretariat register the item.

The committee draft (CD) – a document circulated for study within the technical committee or subcommittee.

This document must pass though a number of stages before it can be accepted as an international Standard.

When agreement is finally reached within the committee, the committee draft is sent to the Central Secretariat for registration as a draft International Standard (DIS) The DIS is then circulated for voting.

In many countries, the DIS is made available for public enquiry thereby ensuring the widest possible consultations

If 75% of the votes cast are in favour of the DIS, it is accepted for further processing as a Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) which is circulated to all member bodies for formal adoption by ISO.

Again 75% of the votes cast must be in favour of the FDIS in order for the International Standard to be published.

Normally the fundamental technical issues are resolved at committee level.

However, the member body voting procedure provides assurance that no important objections have been overlooked.

Most standards require periodic revision. Several factors combine to render a standard out of date:

Technological evolution New methods and materials New quality and safety requirements.

To take account of these factors, ISO has established the general rule that all ISO standards should be reviewed at intervals of not more than five years.

Popular ISO standards

ISO 9000 Quality management ISO 14000 Environmental management ISO 26000 Social responsibility ISO 50001 Energy management ISO 22000 Food safety management

There are many standards in the ISO 9000 family, including:

ISO 9001:2008 - sets out the requirements of a quality management system

ISO 9000:2005 - covers the basic concepts and language

ISO 9004:2009 - focuses on how to make a quality management system more efficient and effective

ISO 19011:2011 - sets out guidance on internal and external audits of quality management systems.

ISO 9001:2008

ISO 9001:2008 sets out the criteria for a quality management system and is the only standard in the family that can be certified to. It can be used by any organization, large or small, regardless of its field of activity. In fact ISO 9001:2008 is implemented by over one million companies and organizations in over 170 countries.

ISO

14001:2004

ISO 14001:2004 sets out the criteria for an environmental

management system and can be certified to. It does not state

requirements for environmental performance, but maps out a

framework that a company or organization can follow to set up an effective environmental management system. It can be used by any

organization regardless of its activity or sector. Using ISO 14001:2004 can provide assurance to company management and employees as well as external stakeholders that environmental impact is being measured and improved.

The benefits of using ISO 14001:2004 can include:

Reduced cost of waste management Savings in consumption of energy and materials Lower distribution costs

Improved corporate image among regulators, customers and the public

ISO 26000:2010

ISO 26000:2010 provides guidance rather than requirements, so it cannot be certified to unlike some other well-known ISO standards. Instead, it helps clarify what social responsibility is, helps businesses and organizations translate principles into effective actions and shares best practices relating to social responsibility, globally. It is aimed at all types of organizations regardless of their activity, size or location.

The standard was launched in 2010 following five years of negotiations between many different stakeholders across the world. Representatives from government, NGOs, industry, consumer groups and labour organizations around the world were involved in its development, which means it represents an international consensus

ISO 50001:2011 – Energy Management System

continual improvement also used for other well-known

ISO 50001 is based on the management system model of

standards such as ISO 9001 or ISO 14001. This makes it easier

for organizations to integrate energy management into their overall efforts to improve quality and environmental management. ISO 50001:2011 provides a framework of requirements for organizations to:

Develop a policy for more efficient use of energy Fix targets and objectives to meet the policy

Use data to better understand and make decisions about energy use

Measure the results Review how well the policy works, and Continually improve energy management

ISO 22000:2005

ISO 22000:2005 sets out the requirements for a food safety management system and can be certified to. It maps out what an organization needs to do to demonstrate its ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that food is safe. It can be used by any organization regardless of its size or position in the food chain.

IEC – International Electrotechnical Commission

Mission

To promote international cooperation in all issues of Electrotechnical standardization

Assessment of conformity to standards in electrical, Electronics and related technologies.

Scope

Electrical, Electronics, Magnetic and electromagnetic, Electroacoustics, Energy production and distribution.

Why IEC Standards are so Important?

Facilitate world trade by removing technical barriers to trade Represent the core of WTO’s agreement on TBT To industry:

Greater product and services quality; More interoperability; Framework for economies of design; Better production and delivery efficiency; Safety-human health and environment.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

Established as an impartial, international

organization within which governments and the private sector could work together to coordinate the operation of telecommunication networks and services and advance the development of communications technology

The Union’s Standardization activisies

Designing advance multimedia systems which handle a mix of voice, data audio and video signals.

Development partnerships between government and private industry is helping bring about rapid improvements in telecommunication infrastructure in the world’s under-developed economies.

Managing the radio-frequency spectrum

Radio-based systems like cellular phones and

pagers, Aircraft and maritime navigation systems,

Scientific research stations, Satellite communication systems Radio and television broadcasting

Continue to function smoothly and provide reliable wireless services to the world’s inhabitants