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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I Dipanshu Bajaj would like to express my special


thanks of gratitude to my teacher Mr.Chako who
gave me the golden opportunity to do this
wonderful p.p.t. on the topic Disaster Management
which also helped me in doing a lot of Research
and I came to know about so many new things. I
am really thankful to them.
SecondlyI would also like to thank my parents and
brother who helped me a lot in finishing this
project within the limited time.
I am making this project not only for marks but to
also increase my knowledge.
THANKS AGAIN TO ALL WHO HELPED ME.

DISASTER
MANAGEMET

INTRODUCTION
People have been living with risk ever since
they first joined efforts ,shared resources and
assumed responsibilities in social groups.
Social development and human well being
have advanced only because people have
taken risk.this extensive damage to life,
property and livelihood of the affected
communities has turned back the
development clock of the areas by decade.

TSUNAMI:THE KILLER
WAVES

TSUNAMI WAVES

The term Tsunami has been point from


the Japanese term Tsu meaning harbour
and nami meaning waves.These waves
are generated by earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions or under water landslides and
can reach 15m or more in height.
The Tsunami danger periods can continue
for many hours after a major earthquake.

CHARACTERSTICS

Whenthewaveentersshallowwater,itslowsdownand
itsamplitude(height)increases.
Thewavefurtherslowsandamplifiesasithitsland.Only
thelargestwavescrest.
Tsunamiscausedamagebytwomechanisms:the
smashingforceofawallofwatertravellingathighspeed,
andthedestructivepowerofalargevolumeofwater
drainingoffthelandandcarryingallwithit,evenifthe
wavedidnotlooklarge.

PREDICTIONS
A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted, even if the magnitude and
location of an earthquake is known.Geologists,oceanographers, and
seismologistsanalyse each earthquake and based on many factors may
or may not issue a tsunami warning. However, there are some warning
signs of an impending tsunami, and automated systems can provide
warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. One of
the most successful systems uses bottom pressure sensors, attached to
buoys, which constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water
column.

WARNINGS

Regions with a high tsunami risk typically usetsunami warning systems


to warn the population before the wave reaches land. On the west
coast of the United States, which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunami,
warning signs indicate evacuation routes. In Japan, the community is
well-educated about earthquakes and tsunamis, and along the Japanese
shorelines the tsunami warning signs are reminders of the natural
hazards.

EARTHQUAKE

EARTHQUAKE:THE TERROR
WAVES

Anearthquake(also known as aquake,tremorortemblor) is the


result of a sudden release of energy in theEarth'scrustthat creates
seismic waves. Theseismicity,seismismorseismic activityof an
area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced
over a period of time. Earthquakes are measured using observations
fromseismometers. Themoment magnitudeis the most common scale
on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the
entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5
reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly
on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as theRichterscale. These
two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude
3 or lower earthquakes are mostly almost imperceptible and magnitude
7 and over potentially cause serious damage over large areas,
depending on their depth. The largest earthquakes in historic times have
been of magnitude slightly over 9, although there is no limit to the
possible magnitude. The most recent large earthquake of magnitude 9.0
or larger was a9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in 2011

PREDICTIONS

Many methods have been developed for predicting


the time and place in which earthquakes will
occur. Despite considerable research efforts by
seismologists, scientifically reproducible
predictions cannot yet be made to a specific day
or month.[58]However, for well-understood faults
the probability that a segment may rupture
during the next few decades can be estimated. [59]
Earthquake warning systemshave been
developed that can provide regional notification
of an earthquake in progress, but before the
ground surface has begun to move.

PREPAREDNESS
The objective ofearthquake engineeringis to
foresee the impact of earthquakes on buildings
and other structures and to design such
structures to minimize the risk of damage.
Existing structures can be modified by
seismic retrofittingto improve their resistance to
earthquakes.Earthquake insurancecan provide
building owners with financial protection against
losses resulting from earthquakes.
Emergency managementstrategies can be
employed by a government or organization to
mitigate risks and prepare for consequences.

PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER
MANAGEMENT

In 2007, Dr. Wayne Blanchard of FEMAs Emergency Management Higher


Education Project, at the direction of Dr. Cortez Lawrence,
Superintendent of FEMAs Emergency Management Institute, convened a
working group of emergency management practitioners and academics
to consider principles of emergency management. This project was
prompted by the realization that while numerous books, articles and
papers referred to principles of emergency management.
Principles: Emergency management must be:
Comprehensive emergency managers consider and take into account
all hazards, all phases, all stakeholders and all impacts relevant to
disasters.
Progressive emergency managers anticipate future disasters and take
preventive and preparatory measures to build disaster-resistant and
disaster-resilient communities.
Risk-driven emergency managers use sound risk management
principles (hazard identification, risk analysis, and impact analysis) in
assigning priorities and resources.
Integrated emergency managers ensure unity of effort among all levels
of government and all elements of a community.
Collaborative emergency managers create and sustain broad and
sincere relationships among individuals and organizations to encourage

The end