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INTRODUCTION TO

OIL DRILLING RIG


SUBMITTED BY
SANDEEP NARAHARISETTY

INTRODUCTION
Def:

Drilling rig may be thought of as a


factory or a manufacturing plant, and it is
used to drill oil wells, and natural gas
extraction wells. The rig is transitory, so it
must be moved frequently thats why the rig
differs from other manufacturing facilities.

TYPES OF OIL RIGS

UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM


Upstream

applies to the operation of


exploration, drilling, hydrocarbon production,
and transmission via truck, rail or ship or pipe
line to the refinery intake valve.
Downstream includes all work done at the
refinery, distillation, cracking, reforming ,
blending storage, mixing and shipping

MAIN COMPONENTS OF A DRIILING RIG

A drilling rig mainly consists of:


1. crown block
2. Traveling block
3. Hook
4. Derrick
5. Swivel
6. Kelly
7. Draw works

MAIN COMPONENTS OF A DRIILING RIG


8.Rotary table
9.Blowout preventer
10.Bit
11.Drill collar
12.Drill string
13.Centrifuge
14.Surface casing
15.Mud ditch
16.Mud pit
17.Pulsation dampener
18.Mud pump
19.Engine.

DRILL BIT

The bit is the main


critical item of a drilling
operation.
This does not mean
that the bit can make
hole alone.
To select a bit, some
information must be
known about the nature
of the rocks to be drilled

DRILL STEM

Drill stem consists of three main


components:

drill collars,
drill pipe and
Kelly.

The following are the principal functions of


the drill stem:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Drill stem lowers the bit into the hole and withdraws it
Part of the drill stem puts weight on the bit so that the
bit can penetrate the formations more effectively
Drill stem transmits a turning, or rotating, action to the
bit.
Drill stem conducts the drilling fluid under pressure
from the surface to the bit.

BLOCKS AND WIRES


The

traveling block, crown block and wire line


are the three components.

The main function is to connect the supporting


derrick or mast with the load of pipe to be lowered
into or withdraw from the hole.

TRAVELLING BLOCK

Traveling block is a
free moving section of a
block and tackle that
contains a set of pulleys
or sheaves through
which the drill line is
threaded or revved and
is opposite (and under)
the crown block (the
stationary section).

CROWN BLOCK

A crown block is the


stationary section of a
block and tackle. It
contains a set of
pulleys or sheaves
which the drill line (wire
rope) is threaded or
revved and is opposite
and above the traveling
block.

DERRICK OR MAST

A mast is also called the


standard mast. It is a
structure with four
supporting legs resting on a
square base, the entire work
area of the floor is in the
derrick square.
In contrast, the mast is
much slenderer and may be
thought of as sitting on one
side of the derrick floor or
work space.

DRAW WORKS

The two main purposes


of the draw works are:

To lift the pipe out of the


hole
To lower the pipe back
into of the hole.

BLOW OUT PREVENTER

Blowout preventer
(BOP) is the equipment
associated with a rig
and devices installed at
the wellhead to prevent
fluids and gasses from
unintentionally
escaping from the
borehole.

CENTRIFUSE

Centrifuge is the
equipment which is
used to separate fine
silt and sand from the
drilling fluid.

ROTORY TABLE

It is used to provide
clockwise rotational
force to facilitate the
process of drilling a
borehole
Operating through drive
bushings, the rotary
rotates the Kelly and,
through it, the drill stem
and the bit

MAIN

FUNCTIONS OF A ROTORY TABLE

To rotate the drill stem


To hold devices called slips that support the weigh
of the drill stem when the latter is not supported
by hook and elevators.

KELLY
Kelly

is a long square or hexagonal steel bar


with a hole drilled through the middle for a
fluid path.
The Kelly is used to transmit rotary motion
from the rotary table or Kelly bushing to the
drill string while allowing the drill string to be
lowered or raised during rotation.

KELLY
The

Kelly goes through the Kelly bushing,


which is driven by the rotary table.
The Kelly bushing has an inside profile
matching the Kellys outside profile (either
square or hexagonal), but with slightly larger
dimensions so that the Kelly can freely move
up and down inside.

KELLY AND ITS COMPONENTS

SWIVEL
Swivel

is a mechanical device that must


simultaneously suspend the weight of the
drill string, provide for rotation of the drill
string beneath it while keeping the upper
portion stationary, and permit high-volume
flow of high-pressure drilling mud from the
fixed portion to the rotating portion without
leaking

MAIN FUNCTIONS

Support the load of the


drill stem
Allow rotation of the
drilling assembly
Provide a passageway
for fluid under high
pressure to enter the drill
stem.