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Fingerprint Sensing

Techniques, Devices and


Applications
Rahul Singh

kingtiny@cs.cmu.edu
30th April 2003

Fingerprint Biometric
First

used in China in 700 AD


Proposed in Europe in 1858,
implemented in Germany in 1903.
Unique So far no two prints from
different fingers have been found that
are identical

Fingerprint Biometric
Characteristics
Fingerprint

is the representation of the


epidermis of a finger
Set of (almost/often) parallel ridge lines
Ridges produce local patterns

Source: http://www.biometrika.it/eng/wp_fingintro.html

Fingerprint Biometric
Characteristics
Five

main classes of
fingerprints

Arch
Tented Arch
Left Loop
Right Loop
Whorl

Source: http://www.biometrika.it/eng/wp_fingintro.html

Fingerprint Sensing

Two stages
1.
2.
3.

Capture Fingerprint image


Process image and extract features
Store data for comparison or compare
with stored templates

Types of Fingerprint Sensors


Optic

Reflexive

Finger lies on a prism. Total internal reflection


produces image of fingerprint on a camera chip
Optic

Transmissive with Fiber Optic Plate

Light source illuminates through the finger


Finger lies on fiber-optic plate that transmits
image data to camera chip
Optical

Line

Pixel array measures the light reflected by the


finger
Source: http://home.t-online.de/home/manfred.bromba/fpfaqe.htm

Types of Fingerprint Sensors


Capacitive

Line

Capacitor array measures the capacitance at each


pixel

Thermal

Line

Pressure

Sensitive

Dynamic

Capacitive

Finger is moved across a narrow array of thermal


sensors
Temperature varies across the grooves and ridges
Thermal sensors measure the temperature differences
over time
Sensor measures the pressure per pixel
Capacitance is measured by A/C voltage

Source: http://home.t-online.de/home/manfred.bromba/fpfaqe.htm

Types of Fingerprint Sensors


Static

Capacitive Type 1

One electrode per pixel


Capacitance measured w.r.t neighboring pixel.
If pixel is on a groove capacitance is small
If pixel is on a ridge then capacitance is large

Static

Capacitive Type 2

Same as above except capacitance is measure


w.r.t ground
Acoustic

(Ultrasound)

Image of fingerprint is recorded by very high


frequency sound
Source: http://home.t-online.de/home/manfred.bromba/fpfaqe.htm

Capacitive Sensing
Fingerprint

consists of tightly spaced ridges

and valleys
Sensor consists of a capacitive array
Capacitive array acts as one plate of a
capacitor while the finger acts as the other
Each pixel in the array is charged to a
reference voltage and allowed to discharge
with a reference current
The rate of change of potential at each pixel is
proportional to the capacitance seen by the
array
iref C

dv
dt

Capacitive Sensing

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Charge amp reset. Inverter O/P settles to threshold


Ref. charge applied to I/P
O/P Voltage proportional to feedback capacitance
Inverter O/P = upper saturation level if there is no feedback capacitance
Inverter O/P = close to logical threshold when feedback capacitance is large

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Source: http://www-micro.deis.unibo.it/~tartagni/Finger/FingerSensor.html

Capacitive Sensing

300

x 300 pixel array (90,000 pixels)


500 dpi Fingerprint image
Source: http://www.fme.fujitsu.com/products/biometric/pdf/Find_FPS.pdf
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Optical Sensing

Finger touches light emitting TactileSense polymer


Photodiode array embedded in the glass detects
illumination
Image is captured and transferred for storage

Source: [Tactilesense] http://www.ethentica.com/tactwhtpr.pdf

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Optical Sensing
Sensing

by projecting
an image of the
fingerprint onto a
camera by total
internal reflection.

Source: http://www.biometrika.it/eng/wp_fingintro.html

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Optical Vs Capacitive
Capacitive

Greater miniaturization
Newer technology
Can be embedded into small devices
Prone to dirt etc since finger touches silicon
Relatively cheap

Optical

Sensors

Larger sensing area since manufacturing large


pure silicon chips is expensive
More robust. Longer life
More expensive
Better image quality and higher resolution
14

Factors affecting the scan


Image

quality

Sharpness
Contrast
Distortion

Source: http://www.biometrika.it/eng/wp_scfing.html

15

Factors affecting the scan


Resolution

better

higher is

Too low and we cannot


detect the minutiae
Sensing

area

Average fingerprint is about


0.5 x 0.7
Large area (1.0 x 1.0)
ensures that overlap effects
(leading to false rejections)
are reduced
Source: http://www.biometrika.it/eng/wp_scfing.html

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Data Storage and Matching


Minutiae

or Galton
Characteristics
Termination of Ridge lines
Bifurcation of Ridge lines

Source: http://www.biometrika.it/eng/wp_fingintro.html

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Data Storage and Matching

Final

data size = 300 to 600 bytes

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Source: http://www.fme.fujitsu.com/products/biometric/pdf/Find_FPS.pdf

Data Storage and Matching


Directional

Map

Discrete matrix whose elements denote the


orientation of the tangent to ridge lines

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FX2000

FX2000 Optical
Sensor

Efficiency

Database of 100 users


(non-experts)
Low quality fingerprints

TASK

SPEED_DEFAULT

SPEED_FAST

Feature extraction

350 ms

260 ms

Matching

120 ms

47 ms

Identity verification (1:1)

470 ms

307 ms

Identification (1:50)

3.35 sec

1.43 sec

Accuracy
threshold t

SPEED_DEFAULT

Verification time (1:1)

SPEED_FAST

FAR

FRR

FAR

FRR

0.3500

0.0049 (0.49%)

0.0005 (0.05%)

0.0032 (0.32%)

0.0009 (0.09%)

0.3750

0.0025 (0.25%)

0.0010 (0.10%)

0.0014 (0.14%)

0.0014 (0.14%)

0.4000

0.0011 (0.11%)

0.0014 (0.14%)

0.0005 (0.05%)

0.0020 (0.20%)

0.4250

0.0006 (0.06%)

0.0019 (0.19%)

0.0002 (0.02%)

0.0034 (0.34%)

0.4500

0.0004 (0.04%)

0.0026 (0.26%)

0.0000 (0.00%)

0.0049 (0.49%)

0.4750

0.0000 (0.00%)

0.0036 (0.36%)

0.0000 (0.00%)

0.0063 (0.63%)

Time to verify the identity

Identification time (1:50)


Average time to identify
an individual. 50
Users. Match is
found in the middle.

20

Secugen FDA01/FCA01
Optical

sensor
Resolution = 500
dpi
Verification time =
< 1 second
Sensing area =
13.6mm x 16.2mm

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Authentec FingerLoc
AF-S2

Capacitive
68 pin PLCC
Resolution: 250 dpi
Array size: .512x.512

AFS8500

Capacitive
144 pin LQFP
Resolution: 250 dpi
Array Size: .384 x .
384
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Biomouse/Biomouse plus
Optical

sensor
High speed matching algorithm
400 prints per second on pII 400.
Resolution = 500 dpi
Average template size = 350 bytes
Biomouse Plus comes with built in
smart card reader
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Defeating Fingerprint
Scanners
Gummi

bears defeat fingerprint sensors

Japanese cryptographer
Gelatin + plastic mould
Latent fingerprints from glass
Cyanoacrylate Adhesive (superglue fules)
Digital camera
Adobe Photoshop
Photosensitive PCB etched print in copper
Moulded finger with print

Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/content/55/25300.html

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Defeating Fingerprint Sensors


More

sophisticated devices use


incorporate biosensing modules prior
to fingerprint capture
Detect blood flow
Detect body heat
Sensor shuts down if no life is detected

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Types of attack
Brute

force
Latent print
Replay
Trojan Horses
Fake feature
Dead feature
Other (software leaks, bad security
policies etc)
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Applications
Secure

logins via keyboard modules


User identification at kiosks
Biometric door locks
Credit card security
Weapon activation
Theft protection

27

Fingerprint Verification for Smart


Cards
Motorola, Australia

Senior

Honors thesis
Develop biometric security solution
(prototype) for Motorola dual-slot phones
Users insert credit card into slot 1 for ecommerce
Smart card with embedded biometric
into slot 2
Fingerprint sensor on phone identifies
user and authorizes use of credit card
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Fingerprint Verification for Smart


Cards
Enrollment

Motorola, Australia

X.509 Certificate
Fingerprint
template
10100110101001
01

Smart Card
X.509 Certificate
Fingerprint
template
10100110101001
01

http://www.roma.unisa.edu.au/08216/99u/index.html

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Fingerprint Verification for Smart


Cards
Motorola, Australia

Verification
Fingerprint
template
10100110101001
01

Compare
Smart Card
X.509 Certificate
Fingerprint
template
10100110101001
01

X.509 Certificate
Fingerprint
template

Fingerprint
template
10100110101001
01

10100110101001
01
http://www.roma.unisa.edu.au/08216/99u/index.html

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Questions

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