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Process Equipment Design

I (ChE 553)
By
M. K. Mandal

Overview
Engineering design is the process of converting an idea or
market need into the details information from which a product
or system can be made
Aim of the future development in technology is to increase the
benefits and reduce the problems

Pressure Vessel
Books:
i. Process Equipment Design
- Lloyd E. Brownell & Edwin H. Young
ii. Process Equipment Design
- M. V. Joshi

Any book, you can


follow

Introduction

Chemical engg. involves the application of


sciences to the process industries where one
material is converted into another by chemical or
physical means

These processes require the handling & storing


of large quantities of materials in containers
Containers for fluid under pressure is called
pressure vessel

Objective: Provide a general knowledge of design requirements for pressure


vessels

Application Area
used in variety of industries
Petroleum refinery
Chemical industry
Power sector
Pulp & paper industry
Food & beverage industry

Types of vessel
Open vessel: used for low value liquid
Closed vessel: used for toxic, hazardous fluid

Again,
i.

Cylindrical:
a)

Horizontal

b) Vertical

ii. Spherical:

MAIN COMPONENTS OF PRESSURE VESSEL

Following are the main components of pressure Vessels


in general
Shell
Head or cover
Nozzle
Flanged joint
Support

VERTICAL PRESSURE VESSEL

The max. Shell


length to diameter
ratio for a small
vertical drum is
about 5 : 1

SPHERICAL PRESSURIZED
STORAGE VESSEL

Design Code
Based on ASME code section VIII

ASME: American society of Mechanical Engineering


an educational tool to help engineers and managers succeed in
todays business/engineering world

Various forces
several types of stresses may occur in cylindrical shell as
follows:
i. Longitudinal/axial stress resulting from pressure within the
vessel
ii. Circumferential/tangential stress resulting from pressure
within the vessel
iii. Residual weld stress resulting from localized heating
iv. Stresses resulting from superimposed loads such as wind,
snow & ice, auxiliary equipment & impact loads
v. Stresses resulting from thermal differences
vi. Others, such as may be encountered in practice

Stress element
Longitudinal
(closed
stress l
ends)

Tangentia
l stress
Hoop stress

Longitudinal stress,

r
Radial stress

Pressure
area

Hoop stress

Internal
pressure,
p

Materials of Construction
i.

Carbon & low alloy steel

ii. High alloy steel

Ferrous metal

iii. Cast iron


iv. Non-ferrous metals: Al, Cu, Ni, Cr & its alloy
v. Non-metals: Carbon & graphite, Glass, Rubber, Plastics etc.

Material selection factors


i.

Strength: represent the capability of material


to withstand

external forces

ii. Corrosion resistance


iii. Fracture toughness: it is the ability of material
to absorb
iv. Fabricability
v. Overall cost

energy in deformation

Problem
10000 kg of SO2/CO2/NH3/H2S/Cl2/Propane/Butane are to be
stored at 150 kg/cm2 at 30 deg C in a suitable pressure vessel.
Design and draw the above vessel & submit a neat scale drawing
of the same.
Consider the gas follows real gas mechanism as:
PV=nZRT and L:D = 2:1

SHELL
It is the primary component that contains the pressure.
Pressure vessel shells in the form of different plates are
welded together to form a structure that has a common
rotational axis.
Shells are either cylindrical, spherical or conical in shape.

SHELL

Horizontal drums have cylindrical shells and are constructed


in a wide range of diameter and length.
The shell sections of a tall tower may be constructed of
different materials, thickness and diameters due to process and
phase change of process fluid.
Shell of a spherical pressure vessel is spherical as well.

Estimation of Thickness of Shell


The internal pressure in the shell gives rise to stress in the shell
thickness
Circumferential / tangential stress:

Ft

pD
2t
Ft> Fa

Longitudinal/axial stress:

pD
Fa
4t

Ft is considered as design
stress

Where p
internal pressure
D
mean diameter = (Di+Do)/2
t = shell thickness

The shell is generally formed by a joint in the longitudinal


direction which is considered in terms of joint efficiency
Therefore, thickness of the shell is given by:

pD
t
2fJ

J= joint efficiency
f= maximum allowable stress

D = (Do + Di)/2
&
Do = Di + 2t
So
,

2fJ

Do Di

p Di t

2fJ

P= design pressure
= working press. + 20% of

pDi
t
2fJ p
Now, final t = t + C
Where C = corrosion allowance
= 10 % of t or 1 mm (minm.) or 3 mm (maxm.)
No corrosion allowance for stainless steel
With this thickness (t), one should estimate what should be the resulting
circumferential & longitudinal stress
i.

Stress in the circumferential direction due to internal p (tangential or Hoops


stress)

Ft

p Di t '
2t '

ii.

Stresses in the longitudinal or axial direction:


a)

Due to internal pressure

pDi
F1
4t '
b)

Due to weight of vessel & content (vertical vessel only)

F2

c)

(tensile)


Due to windF
or3piping

'

W
Di t '

M
M

z
Di2 t '

Total axial stress,


Fa = F1 + F2 + F3

(Compressive)
Where, W = wt.

(tensile or
Compressive)

Where, M = Bending moment due


to load
z = Modulus of section

iii.

Stress due to offset piping or wind:


Fs

2T
t ' Di Di t '
T = torque about the vessel axis

So, combining the above stress on the basis of shear-strain energy


theory,
Equivalent stress:

FR F Ft Fa F 3F
2
t

For satisfactory design,

2
a

FR Ft
Fa Ft

2
s

HEAD
All the pressure vessels must be closed at the
ends by heads (or another shell section).
Heads are typically curved rather than flat.
The reason is that curved configurations are
stronger and allow the heads to be thinner,
lighter and less expensive than flat heads.
Heads can also be used inside a vessel and
are known as intermediate heads.
These intermediate heads are separate
sections of the pressure vessels to permit
different design conditions.

NOZZLE
A nozzle is a cylindrical component that
penetrates into the shell or head of pressure
vessel.
They are used for the following applications.
Attach piping for flow into or out of the vessel.
Attach instrument connection (level gauges,
Thermowells, pressure gauges).
Provide access to the vessel interior at
MANWAY.
Provide for direct attachment of other equipment
items (e.g. heat exchangers).

SUPPORT
Support is used to bear all the load of
pressure vessel, earthquake and wind loads.
There are different types of supports which
are used depending upon the size and
orientation of the pressure vessel.
It is considered to be the non-pressurized
part of the vessel.

TYPES OF SUPPORTS
SADDLE SUPPORT:
Horizontal drums are typically supported at two
locations by saddle support.
It spreads over a large area of the shell to prevent an
excessive local stress in the shell at support point.
One saddle support is anchored whereas the other is
free to permit unstrained longitudinal thermal
expansion of the drum.

TYPES OF SUPPORTS
LEG SUPPORT:
Small vertical drums are typically supported on legs
that are welded to the lower portion of the shell.
The max. ratio of support leg length to drum diameter
is typically 2 : 1
Reinforcing pads are welded to the shell first to
provide additional local reinforcement and load
distribution.
The number of legs depends on the drum size and
loads to be carried.
Support legs are also used for Spherical pressurized
storage vessels.
Cross bracing between the legs is used to absorb wind
or earth quake loads.

TYPES OF SUPPORTS
LUG SUPPORT:

Vertical pressure vessels may


also be supported by lugs.

The use of lugs is typically


limited to pressure vessels of
small and medium diameter (1
to 10 ft)

Also moderate height to


diameter ratios in the range of
2:1 to 5:1

The lugs are typically bolted to


horizontal structural members
in order to provide stability
against overturning loads.

TYPES OF SUPPORTS
SKIRT SUPPORT:
Tall vertical cylindrical pressure vessels are typically
supported by skirts.
A support skirt is a cylindrical shell section that is
welded either to the lower portion of the vessel shell
or to the bottom head (for cylindrical vessels).
The skirt is normally long enough to provide enough
flexibility so that radial thermal expansion of the shell
does not cause high thermal stresses at its junction
with the skirt.