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Network Optimization

2002 Network Optimization

Outlines

Optimization Concepts
Analysis and Measurements
Optimizing Parameters
Typical problems and solutions

2002 Network Optimization

Optimization Concepts

2002 Network Optimization

Optimization Concepts

Role
Process
Key Indicators
Reports and Action plans
Activities
Input Data

2002 Network Optimization

Role

Optimization engineer mission


The optimization engineer ensures that the dropped calls and the other
quality factors are at their best, leading to maximum customer
satisfaction and revenue potential
No matter how thorough the design work is, it is the optimization engineer who
has to make the equipment really work, from an engineering point of view

2002 Network Optimization

Process

System optimization & performance involves applying a set of techniques :

Identifying objectives
Isolate system components
Test plan
Taking actions
Conduct postanalysis

2002 Network Optimization

Process

Identifying objective
Identifying your objective with the effort you are about to partake in and document
it

Isolate system component


To identify what aspect of the system you are trying to work on, NSS, BSS, radio
site, mobile, antennas or the RF environment

2002 Network Optimization

Process

Test plan
To establish a plan and to write down what you want to accomplish, how you will
accomplish it, and what the expected results will be

Take action
To conduct the work or the troubleshooting that is identified in your objective,
usually a test plan

2002 Network Optimization

Process

Conduct postanalysis
To conduct a postanalysis of your work and then issue a closing document either
supporting or refuting your initial conclusion and identifying the what are the next
actionable items

2002 Network Optimization

Key Indicators

The most familiar key indicators for any operators are :

Drop call rate


Call setup success rate
Call setup blocking rate
TCH/SDCCH Access failure
HO Causes
HO Failures

2002 Network Optimization

Key Indicators

With the proper use of of key indicators, the optimization engineer must be
proactive with respect to system performance issues

when service-affecting problem occurs, it is better for the optimization


engineer to already be aware of the problem and have a solution

When operating with multiple vendor system, it is important to cross map the
indicators reported from one vendor and find a corollary to it with another
vendor

2002 Network Optimization

Key Indicators

Setting thresholds for Key Indicators


The threshold and the objective of the different key indicators must be set in a
realistic way
The objectives should be driven to improve the overall performance of the
networking factoring into it :
The growth rate expected
Budget constraints

It is important to set aggressive goals to work for, but it equally important to involve
members of the staff whose job is to ensure that the mission statement is met

2002 Network Optimization

Reports and Action Plans

Reports
It is very important to produce a regular summary reports for various levels of
management so that they know how the system is operating
You should determine in advance when delivering a report, who needs to see the
information against who wants to see it

2002 Network Optimization

Reports and Action Plans

Action Plans
Action plan is the right consequence to the reports
Establishing a quarterly and monthly action plan for improving the network is
essential in ensuring its health
Each quarter (long term plan) you should identify the worst 10% of your system
following the KPIs
The quarterly action plan should be used as the deriving force for establishing the
monthly plans
The short-term action plans coupled with the long term action plans will help derive
the success or failure of the overall mission

2002 Network Optimization

Activities

The radio optimization is built around three main tasks:


Detection of the problems
Analysis of the problems
Solving the problems

2002 Network Optimization

Activities
F r e q u e n c y P la n

F o llo w in g th e
in s ta lla tio n
o f a n e w s ite o r a n
e x te n s io n
F o llo w in g V IP a n d
QoS
C o m p la in s

S ta tis tic s a la r m
d e fin itio n
a n d M o n ito r in g

R e d e s ig n
(A n te n n a tilts &
R e a z im u th )

O p tim iz a tio n
Team

P a ra m e te rs a n d
fre q u e n c y
tu n in g

T r a ffic H a n d lin g
F ie ld
M e a s u re m e n ts

2002 Network Optimization

Activities

Frequency plan
Provide a frequency plan for the macrocells and microcells
Plan the frequencies for a new site or replace frequency in case interference is
detected

Site Redesign
Minimizing the bad effect of overlapping and overshooting which has very bad
influences on the performance of the network
Enhancing the coverage of poor covered areas

2002 Network Optimization

Activities

Each optimizer has to deliver a weekly evolution report showing the evolution
of his zone according to the following indicators:

Call Drop Rate


BH call setup TCH Blocking Rate
BH Call setup success Rate
BH TCH Traffic Carried
Uplink Quality HO Rate
Downlink Quality HO Rate

2002 Network Optimization

Activities

Others

New Site Integration


Parameters tuning
Neighbor cleanings
Traffic handling follow up
Handling VIP and QoS complaints

2002 Network Optimization

Input Data

Data gathering is an important issue that facilitate the work of the optimizer
Data could be :
Raw data (coverage maps, frequency plan, sites database ..etc)
Measurements data (Drive test, A-bis/A captures, Call traces, statistics etc )

Handling these data in optimum way will lead to better performance and
output

2002 Network Optimization

Input Data

Plots/Maps
Coverage (global region and specific area)
Best server map
Frequency planning (Site location (X,Y), BCCH, channels)

Sites Database
Radio Parameters
Neighbors list
Channel Configuration

2002 Network Optimization

Input Data

Statistics and Indicators


Identify occasional faults on a subsystem (BSS, BTS) and establish corrective
action
Detect and identify radio problem on a cell
Statistics can be used to trace and verify big changes in the network (FP,
Parameters changes, implementations of problem solutions)
Predict network behavior according to traffic evolution
Cant reveal the cause of a problem, additional analysis via call trace and/or drive
test or traces shall be used

2002 Network Optimization

Input Data

Drive Tests
Presents the real network performance experienced by subscribers
Provide field information which is often very useful to solve specific troubles
Routes of Drives tested must be agreed to have a valuable output

All sites and sectors should be tested within the route at least once
All major roads & highways should be tested
All cells should be tested for handout and handin within the routes if possible
The routes should be approximately 2-3 hours in duration

2002 Network Optimization

Input Data

Abis measurements

Drive tests give a snapshot view of the network


Drive tests provide detailed information on the downlink only
Not recommended to adjust cell and HO parameters based on a specific drive test
Abis is the ideal source for level, quality and interference analysis
Abis provides synchronized information on uplink and downlink

2002 Network Optimization

Input Data

A-Interface measurements
This interface is standardized by ETSI and its implementation is mandatory
Network optimization based on A-interface analysis makes the process objective
and independent of vendor infrastructure
Collecting data is usually easier (because of the reduced number of link
connections) than for Abis or Drive Test data
Analyses can be run at BSC level, then at cell- and even at individual call level,
with the same unique dataset

2002 Network Optimization

Troubleshooting

2002 Network Optimization

Troubleshooting

Coverage
Interference
Unbalanced power budget
Call Drop
Congestion(TCH and SDCCH)
Quality
Call Setup success

2002 Network Optimization

Coverage

Symptoms
High drop call rate
High rate of quality and level handovers
Low proportion of better cell handover

2002 Network Optimization

Coverage

If actual coverage is not the one predicted by radio network planing tools then:
Check antenna system
increase antenna down tilt
Check the parameter bs_txpwr_max (max_tx_bts)

If actual coverage is the one predicted then:


Indoor traffic
if black spot close to cell border, ease outgoing HO.

2002 Network Optimization

Interference

The interference is the presence of bad quality and good rxlev in the same
time on the same area
Two types of interference:
GSM interference

Co-channel
Adjacent Channel

External interference

Other Mobile network


Other RF sources

2002 Network Optimization

Interference

GSM interference
Adjacent channel interference:
Interference occurs if the neighbor level is higher than the serving by >= 9dB
( C/I <-9dB)
Level
neighbor

9dB

serving

F(BTS1)=F(BTS2)+1

2002 Network Optimization

Frequency

Interference

Co-channel interference:
Interference occurs if the neighbor level is lower than the serving by <= 9dB
C/I<9dB

Level
serving

9dB-

neighbor

F(BTS1)=F(BTS2)
2002 Network Optimization

Frequency

Interference

Symptom of GSM interference:


High rate of quality HO (specially downlink quality)
High rate of call drop
High rate of call failure

Solution:

Change of frequency
Down-tilt of interferer, or even change of antenna orientation
Reduction of BS power
Concentric cell implementation

2002 Network Optimization

Interference

Non GSM interference


Other RF interferer : Radar,medical device, army communication devices ...
Symptom of external interference:

High rate of quality HO (specially uplink quality)


High rate of call drop
High rate of call failure
High rate of Interference on idle

Solution:
Change of interfered frequency

2002 Network Optimization

Unbalanced Power Budget

Path balance = path loss(ul) - path loss(dl)


Path balance should be equal to zero. Positive value of path balance means that
the path loss in the UL is higher than that of the downlink. Negative value means
the opposite

Symptoms:
High ratio of uplink quality HO
Low incoming HO success rate
High ratio of call drop rate

Causes:
Hardware problems

2002 Network Optimization

High Drop Call Rate


Drop_Call_Rate>Threshold
Yes

Is there any site out of service


?near by

Yes

Contact BSS

No
?Is it a border cell

Yes

Check if there
is a need for a
new site

No
TCH_RF_LOSS> threshold

Yes

Go to TCH_RF_LOSS problem

No

<Handover_Failures
threshold

Yes

2002 Network Optimization

Go to Ho_Failure problem

TCH Congestion

2002 Network Optimization

SDCCH Congestion

2002 Network Optimization