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Good Governance and

Accountability
Eko Prasojo

Contract Between Government


and Citizen
Constitution as broadest principle
National Laws and Regulation
Regional and Local regulation
Active Citizens Involvement in Government

What is Governance (UNDP 1997)


The use of political authority and exercise of
control over a society and the management of
resources for social and economic
development
Incorporation a political dimension
(commitment to achieve public goods) and a
technical dimension (efficient of management)

Governance is:
the complex mechanisms, process,
relationships and institutions
through which citizens and groups
articulate their interests, exercise
their rights and obligations and
mediate their differences

Governance is shifting paradigm of state


It is based on the paradigm shift in the role of the
state from controlling to providing a macroeconomic
and micro economic environment that creates
incentive for efficient economic activities,
establishes and enforces institutional arrangements
such as law and order, rules and property rights to
domestic and international investment and provides
basic social services and framework for human
resource development (Cheema, 2005).

Dari Government ke Governance

What is the differences between


Government and Governance
Government as structure, governance as
process
Government as polititician and bureaucrat,
governance as whole elements of state
Government is single dimension, governance is
multi dimension
Government is providing, governance is
enabling

The Essence of Good


Governance
Legitimacy: the publics acceptance of
the authority
Accountability: Assuring the legitimacy
through the accountable performance
Management effectiveness: Performance
orientation and transparent procedures
Availability of information about laws,
procedures and results

Political Dimension of Good


Governance
Democratic election
Respect for Human Right
Rule of the law
Political openness
Equity
Public participation
Judicial Independence
Transparency
Freedom of information
Accountability
Absence of corruption

The Dimensions of Good Governance

Efficient and effective


Governance
Participative Governance
Balanced Governance

The building of Good


Governance
Legitimacy
Resources
Needs,
demand
Government

Citizen and
other
stakeholders
Accountabilit
y
Services
Leadership

Strengthening Partnership
Build
Communicati
on linkages

Legal
Framework
Discretionary
Procedure

Gov.

Citizen
Groups

Skills
Behavior/value
s

Strength
en
capacitie
s

Main Indicators of Good Governance


Political awareness of people to the
society and their environment
Political trust to the government and
the politics

World Governance Indicators


Control of Corroption
Voice and Accountability
Rule of Law
Regulatory Quality
Political Stability and absence of Violence

Pattern of Peoples Participation


Political participation is active if both political
awareness and trust high
Political participation is apathy if political
awareness and trust low
Political participation is militant-radical if political
awareness high and trust low
Political participation is passive if political
awareness low and trust high

Strengths of Civil Society


A large constituency (NGOs
National Coalition and formations)
Grassroots base
Ability to organize communities

Participation and voice

Voice an idea from the private to the public sector

A force to help enhance government accountability


and performance

VOICE MECHANISMS
1.

Within formal governance arrangements (elections,


complaint mechanisms, etc.)

2.

Parallel mechanisms (through NGOs, informal community


gatherings, etc.)

Major questions
What is the affect of voice
mechanisms in developing
countries?
Do voice mechanisms empower citizens?
Do voice mechanisms enhance
accountability?

What factors seem to influence


voice expression?

Some considerations
Voice mechanisms not always enhance
accountability
Where low influence: No accountability gains
Where high influence but narrow focus: narrow accountability
effect
Where high influence and broad focus: broad accountability
effect, greatest potential for all-around empowerment

Note: Different voice expression effects through


different voice mechanisms
Question: What factors influence effects?

Factors influencing voice effects


The voice mechanism adopted matters:
Greater influence where voices speak into key governance
processes (planning etc)
Greater influence where mechanism seen as appropriate
in context of formal governance structures
Mechanism design details matter:
Influences on access to mechanism and ability to
participate
The participation agenda (who sets it, etc.)
The approach to assessing participation through the
mechanism
INFORMATION (access, legibility etc.) and the structure
of public sector processes and documents

Factors influencing voice effects


Voice transmission mediums
Once voice expressed, how transmitted to governing
leaders?
Once voice expressed, how is feedback transmitted
back to citizens?

Politics and administrative influence


Closed models of governance
Incentives for those governing to listen?
Intergovernmental tensions (who should we listen to)?

Socio-economics and social structures


Inequalities
Social capital and organization

Increasing participation
Awareness Raising
Policy Advocacy
Institution Building
Capacity Building

Best Practices Good Governance


Impact on society (tangibel and intangible)
Partnerhsip
Sustainability
Leadership and community development
Social equality
Local context
Transferability

End of Presentation