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BUSINESS RESEARCH METHOD

MBA 27A
SUBMITTED BY
KANWAL
HAFEEZ
RIDA ISHFAQ
HAMNA
MUZAFFAR
ASIA MALIK
SUBMITTED TO
MS.
AMBERJAMIL

Questionnaires
A questionnaire is a
preformulated written set
of question to which
respondent record their
answers, usually within
rather closely defined
alternative.

Questionnaires
It is the best method to know
what is required for your data
and how to measure the
variable of interest.
It can also be:

Administered personally

Mailed to respondents

Electronically distributed

Personally administered
questionnairs

When the survey is confined


to local area and the
organization is willing and
able to assemble the group
of employees to respond to
questionnaires to workplace

Less expensive
Consume less time
Best administered
personally to group of
people

Opportunity to
introduce the topic of
research and motivate
the respondent

Advantages
Any doubts can be
clarified quickly

Collection of data within


a short period of time

Different ways to collect data in


personally administered
questionnaires
Usually it is difficult for the
organizations to spend longer hours
in collection of data and the other
ways of getting the questionnaires
back after completion may have to be
found.

In such case, employees can be:

Given blank
Mailed back by
questionnaires
a certain date
to be collected
in self
personally after
addressed
few days

Stamped
envelopes
provided to
them for the
purpose

Scanner Sheet
These are the answer sheets which can
be given to the employees with the
questionnaires, so the respondents can
circle their answer to each question on
the sheet. Its advantage is that the data
can be directly entered in the computer
rather than by coding and manually
entering.

Mail Questionnaires

This is the type of questionnaire that's


fully constructed and sent by the
researcher by mail to the respondents
who are expected to fill it and send it
back to the researcher by post or email.

Advantages
A wide

geographical area can be


covered in the survey.
They are mailed to the respondents
who can complete them at their
convenience in their homes and at
their own pace.

Negative Fact Of Mail


Questionnaires
The return rates of mail
questionnaire are typically low.
A 30% response rate is considered
acceptable.

Any doubts the respondents


might have cannot be clarified.
It is difficult to establish the
representatives of the sample
because it is not representative of
the whole population

Techniques to improve rate of


response
Sending

follow-up letters
Enclosing some small monetary
amounts as incentives with the
questionnaire
Providing the respondent with selfaddressed, stamped return envelopes
and keeping the questionnaire brief
do indeed help.

Techniques to improve rate of


response
When

respondents are notified in


advance about the forthcoming
survey, response rate will be better.
A reputed research organization
administers them with its own
introductory cover letter.

Who uses the mail


questionnaires?
Field study
Comparative
survey
Experimental
design

Three Guidelines
For Questionnaires
Design

Appearance of
the
questionnaire

Planning of issue
i.e.,
How variable will
be categorized,
scaled and coded
after the receipt of
response

Related to the
wording of the
question

Principles Of Wording of a
Questionnaire:

Content and Purpose of the


questions.
Language and Wording of the
questionnaire.
Type and Form of the questions.
Sequencing of the questions.
Personal data sought from the
respondents.

Principles Of Wording of
a Questionnaire:

Content and Purpose of the


questions:
The nature of variable will select
that what kind of questions are
asked. There are two possible
natures of variables:
Subjective Nature
Objective Nature

Principles Of Wording of a
Questionnaire:

Subjective Nature:
If selected variables are of a
subjective nature (e.g., satisfaction
and involvement etc.) where you
have to measure the perception
and beliefs of the respondents here
the questions should tap the
dimensions and elements of the
concept.

Principles Of Wording of
a Questionnaire:

Objective Nature:
If selected variables are of
objective nature (e.g., age, height,
heart beat of the respondents) then
you should ask a single direct
question from the respondents.

Principles Of Wording of
a Questionnaire:

Thus, the purpose of each question


should be carefully considered
which will make the measurement
of variables easy and do not ask
unnecessary questions.

Principles Of Wording of a
Questionnaire:

Language and Wording of the


questionnaire:
The language of the questionnaire should
estimate the level of understanding of the
respondents. The choice of words will depend
on their education level, the terms they choose
and the idioms in their cultures. Because some
questions are interpreted differently by the
respondents and they will obtain the wrong
answer to the question. So, the language used
and the wording should be appropriate to tap
the respondents perceptions and feelings.

Principles Of Wording of a
Questionnaire:

Type and Form of the questions:


The type of question refers to
whether the question is open-ended
or closed and its form refers to
whether it is positively worded or
negatively.
There are two type of questions:
Open-ended Questions
Closed Questions

Principles Of Wording of a
Questionnaire:

Open-Ended Questions:
Open-Ended Questions allow
respondents to answer in any way they
choose.
E.g.:
Asking respondent to state five things
that are interesting and challenging in
the job.
Invite their comments on the
investment portfolio of the firm etc.

Principles Of Wording of a
Questionnaire:

Closed Questions:
Ask the respondent to make choices among a set of
alternatives given by the researcher.
E.g.:
Instead of asking the respondent to state any 5
interesting and challenging aspects of the job , the
researcher might list 10 or 15 aspects that might seems
interesting and challenging in job and ask the
respondent to rank the first five among these in order
of their preference.
Nominal , ordinal and ratio scales are closed
questionnaires.
They are very helpful for respondents in making quick
decisions among alternatives.

Positively and negatively


questions:

worded

The use of both positively and negatively worded


questions was introduced a long time ago. It
means instead of phrasing all questions
positively, it is advisable to include some
negatively worded questions as well. The
purpose of this is to prevent response bias.

Positively and negatively


questions:

worded

For example, a set of five questions is use to


evaluate the employee satisfaction at job with
a scale of 1 being very low and 5 being very
high on the scale.
If the respondent is not interested in filling that
questions, and all questions are positive then
he simply answer 5 strongly agree without
reading them.

Positively and negatively


questions:

worded

Thats why it is necessary to include some


negative questions along with positive in a
questionnaire.
Avoid excessive use of words not and only
because they tend to confuse the respondent.
Like it is better to say that the rich need no
help: than to say :only the rich do not need
help

Double barreled questions:


The questions that lend itself to different possible
responses to its subpart is called doublebarreled questions. Such questions should be
avoided instead you can asked two or more
separate questions.
For example,
Double barreled question:
How is the taste and appearance of our product?

Double barreled questions:


Better:
Please rate the taste of our product.
Please rate the appearance of our product.
If we combined the two questions and asked a
double barreled question, we would confuse
the respondents and obtain ambiguous
responses. Hence double barreled questions

Ambiguous questions:
Some questions that are not double-barreled
might be ambiguously worded and due to this
respondent may not be sure what exactly they
mean.
For example:
To what extent would you say you are happy?
This is an ambiguous question because
respondent is not sure about whether this
question refer to the state of feelings at home,
in the workplace or in general.

Ambiguous questions:
Respondents interpret such an ambiguous
question differently and as a result of it there
will be ambiguous response that do not
accurately provide the correct answer to the
questions.

Recall-dependent questions:
Some questions might require respondents to
recall experiences from the past that are hazy
in their memory.
For example:
If an employee is working in the organization for
20 years and you asked him to state when he
first started working in a particular department
and for how long? Then he may not be able to
give you the correct answer. In this situation it
is better to obtain that information from
personnel record.

SOCIAL DESIRABILITY

Questions should not be worded in the way that they elicit


socially desirable response

Where socially desirability is of special concern are selfreports of abilities, personality, sexual behavior, and drug
use. When confronted with the question like "Do you use
drugs/illicit substances?

LENGTH OF QUESTIONS

Simple & short questions are more preferable than long


ones.

The length of the question must not exceed from one line or
twenty (20) words.

SEQUENCING OF QUESTIONS

The sequence of questions must be in the easy form.


Firstly, ask the general questions and then go to the specific
nature of questions.(funeral approach)
In general nature, the questions related to the global nature
like question about over all organizations while, specific
nature questions are related to specific job department.

SEQUENCING OF QUESTIONS

The question must be easy, so that it is easy to understand


for respondents. Difficult questions calls respondents
towards more thought,judgement, and decision making in
providing the answer.

It is advisable not to type positively worded questions and


negatively worded questions selecting the same element of
a concept.

SEQUENCING OF QUESTIONS

For instance, type the two questions ,one after another is not
looking so awkward but also it seems insulted to the
respondent.
For e.g:
I have opportunities to interact with my colleagues during
work hours.
I have few opportunities to interact with my colleagues during
work hours.

SEQUENCING OF QUESTIONS

If you want to check the consistency of your respondent, two


questions should be placed in different parts of your
questionnaire.

Randomly placing the questions reduces the systematic bias


in the responses. But it is done very rare because of coding
and analyzing the responses.

LOADED QUESTIONS

Bias in questions occur when phrased in emotionally charged


manner.
For e.g:
Do you care enough to stop your child from skateboarding or
are u indifferent?
Do you still beat your wife?

EXAMPLES OF LOADED QUESTIONS

In first example, care is emotionally charged term.


In second example "beat your wife is charged as emotion
related term.

LEADING QUESTIONS

Leading questions are those in which researcher signaling


or pressurizing the respondents to give the same answer as
researcher wants to be

These questions are consider as bias in questionnaires.

EXAMPLES OF LEADING QUESTIONS

You were in Islamabad last week, weren't you?

Would you hesitate to let your child skateboard knowing the


rate of broken wrists & the long term effects of head injury?