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CONCEPTS OF

FORCE-STRESS
and
DEFORMATIONSTRAIN

P2
P1

P3

P4

For a body in
equilibrium (not
in motion)
subjected to
some external
forces Pi, there
are internal
forces developed
within the body.
P1, P2...:External
forces
F : Internal forces

Internal forces can


be shown on an
imaginary cut
section.

P4
P3

P
P

P
4

P
4

3
Since the body was initially in equilibrium,
half of this
body should also be in equilibrium.
The internal forces are derived from the equilibrium
equations and can be defined as the forces to bring the
body to equilibrium.
Remember force is a vectorical quantity which has a
magnitude and direction.
3

P1+P2+P3+P4 = 0
For the original body
M = 0
P1+P2+F = 0

For half of the body


M = 0

F can be solved from the above set of


equilibrium equations of the half plane.

STRESS

If you look at that cut section little bit closer;


Force acting on an infinite small area can be
shown;

s
That force is called the STRESS.

In other words stress is the force intensity

(force per unit area) acting on a material.


Stress
=

Forc
e
Are
a

o
r

F
A

Normal () : acts perpendicular to the


area
Stres
s
Shear () : acts parallel to the
area.
For example; if the cut section is perpendicular
to x-axisy
F
y

x
z

F
F
x

x
=

F
A
x

y =

F
A
y

z =

F
A
z

However, stresses are always represented in


tensorial (!not vectorical!) notation.
The plane it is acting on is also presented.
Therefore, if you take an infinitesmall volume
element you can show all of the stress
components
The

first subscript
indicates the plane
perpendicular to the
axis and the second
subscript indicates
the direction of the
stress component.
Stress

In tensorial notation the stress


components are assembled in a matrix.
For equilibrium it

can be shown that


:
S=

ij = ji for i j
xy = yx
xz = zx

This symmetry reduces the shear stress


=

components to three.

yz

zy

Stresses can be grouped in several


ways.
Static: A constant and
continuous load causes a
Stres
static stress.
Dynamic: Loads having different
s
magnitudes and at different
times cause dynamic stresses.

Stres

Uniaxial tension or
compression
Biaxial tension or
compression
Triaxial
compression
Pure

Baloon

Spring is in
uniaxial
tension

Membrane
forces

Column is in
uniaxial
compression

Hydrostatic pressure
(triaxial compression)

Common States of Stress


Simple tension: cable

A o = cross sectional
area (when unloaded)

Ao

Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft

Ac
M

2R

Fs

Ao

Fs

Ao

Ski lift

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

Note: = M/AcR here.

Common States of Stress


Simple compression:

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Balanced Rock, Arches


National Park

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Ao

Note: compressive
structure member
( < 0 here).

Common States of Stress


Bi-axial tension:

Pressurized tank

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

Hydrostatic compression:

Fish under water

> 0
z > 0

h< 0

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

DEFORMATIO
N

Deformation: is the change in the shape or

dimension of a material. In other words


when the relative position of points within
a body changes deformation takes place.
Elongation: occurs under tensile stresses.
Shortening: under compressive stresses
Rotation: due to shear stresses

a)
b)
c)

A
A

2
P

B
B

Total elongation of the rod is 2 (cm,


mm, length)
Elongation between AB is (2-1)

STRAIN

Strain: represents the deformation of


materials per unit length and is unitless
(cm/cm, mm/mm)

Deformatio
Strain
n
Original
=
P length

ll0

l-l0
=
l0

l=
ll0

d0

(+) Tensile
(elongation)

l0

d =

d0
d

(-)
Shortening

When pure shear acts on an element, the


element deforms into a rhombic shape.
For convenience the element is rotated by
an angle /2 and represented as shown.

y
/
2

/
2

y
A
A

For small angles = tan

B B

C
AA

AD

x
(radians
)

A pure shear strain is produced in torsion.

=
A

A A

AA
A
B
A

AA =
r r

L
=

: Angle of twist of radial


line AB to position AB
r: radius of cross-sectional

Engineering Stress
Tensile stress, :

Ft

Ft

Area, A

Area, A

Ft
Ft
N
= 2f
=
Ao m
original area
before loading

Shear stress, :

F
Fs

Fs
F
= s
Ao

Ft

Stress has units:


N/m2 or kgf/cm2 or psi

Engineering Strain
Tensile strain:

Lateral strain:
/2


Lo

wo

Shear strain:

L
L
wo

Lo

L /2

= x/y = tan

x
90 -

y
90

Strain is always
dimensionless.

Adapted from Fig. 6.1 (a) and (c), Callister 7e.

Stress-Strain Testing
Typical tensile test
machine

extensometer

Typical tensile
specimen

specimen

Adapted from
Fig. 6.2,
Callister 7e.

gauge
length

Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister 7e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W.
Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of
Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1965.)

Typical response of a metal

engineering stress

Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.


Adapted from Fig. 6.11,
Callister 7e.

TS

F = fracture or
ultimate
strength

Necking

engineering strain