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# CONCEPTS OF

FORCE-STRESS
and
DEFORMATIONSTRAIN

P2
P1

P3

P4

For a body in
equilibrium (not
in motion)
subjected to
some external
forces Pi, there
are internal
forces developed
within the body.
P1, P2...:External
forces
F : Internal forces

## Internal forces can

be shown on an
imaginary cut
section.

P4
P3

P
P

P
4

P
4

3
Since the body was initially in equilibrium,
half of this
body should also be in equilibrium.
The internal forces are derived from the equilibrium
equations and can be defined as the forces to bring the
body to equilibrium.
Remember force is a vectorical quantity which has a
magnitude and direction.
3

P1+P2+P3+P4 = 0
For the original body
M = 0
P1+P2+F = 0

M = 0

## F can be solved from the above set of

equilibrium equations of the half plane.

STRESS

## If you look at that cut section little bit closer;

Force acting on an infinite small area can be
shown;

s
That force is called the STRESS.

Stress
=

Forc
e
Are
a

o
r

F
A

## Normal () : acts perpendicular to the

area
Stres
s
Shear () : acts parallel to the
area.
For example; if the cut section is perpendicular
to x-axisy
F
y

x
z

F
F
x

x
=

F
A
x

y =

F
A
y

z =

F
A
z

## However, stresses are always represented in

tensorial (!not vectorical!) notation.
The plane it is acting on is also presented.
Therefore, if you take an infinitesmall volume
element you can show all of the stress
components
The

first subscript
indicates the plane
perpendicular to the
axis and the second
subscript indicates
the direction of the
stress component.
Stress

## In tensorial notation the stress

components are assembled in a matrix.
For equilibrium it

:
S=

ij = ji for i j
xy = yx
xz = zx

## This symmetry reduces the shear stress

=

components to three.

yz

zy

## Stresses can be grouped in several

ways.
Static: A constant and
Stres
static stress.
s
magnitudes and at different
times cause dynamic stresses.

Stres

Uniaxial tension or
compression
Biaxial tension or
compression
Triaxial
compression
Pure

Baloon

Spring is in
uniaxial
tension

Membrane
forces

Column is in
uniaxial
compression

Hydrostatic pressure
(triaxial compression)

## Common States of Stress

Simple tension: cable

A o = cross sectional

Ao

Ac
M

2R

Fs

Ao

Fs

Ao

Ski lift

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

## Common States of Stress

Simple compression:

Ao

## Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM

(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

National Park

## (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

Ao

Note: compressive
structure member
( < 0 here).

## Common States of Stress

Bi-axial tension:

Pressurized tank

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

Hydrostatic compression:

> 0
z > 0

h< 0

(photo courtesy
P.M. Anderson)

DEFORMATIO
N

## dimension of a material. In other words

when the relative position of points within
a body changes deformation takes place.
Elongation: occurs under tensile stresses.
Shortening: under compressive stresses
Rotation: due to shear stresses

a)
b)
c)

A
A

2
P

B
B

## Total elongation of the rod is 2 (cm,

mm, length)
Elongation between AB is (2-1)

STRAIN

## Strain: represents the deformation of

materials per unit length and is unitless
(cm/cm, mm/mm)

Deformatio
Strain
n
Original
=
P length

ll0

l-l0
=
l0

l=
ll0

d0

(+) Tensile
(elongation)

l0

d =

d0
d

(-)
Shortening

## When pure shear acts on an element, the

element deforms into a rhombic shape.
For convenience the element is rotated by
an angle /2 and represented as shown.

y
/
2

/
2

y
A
A

B B

C
AA

x
)

=
A

A A

AA
A
B
A

AA =
r r

L
=

## : Angle of twist of radial

line AB to position AB

Engineering Stress
Tensile stress, :

Ft

Ft

Area, A

Area, A

Ft
Ft
N
= 2f
=
Ao m
original area

Shear stress, :

F
Fs

Fs
F
= s
Ao

Ft

## Stress has units:

N/m2 or kgf/cm2 or psi

Engineering Strain
Tensile strain:

Lateral strain:
/2

Lo

wo

Shear strain:

L
L
wo

Lo

L /2

= x/y = tan

x
90 -

y
90

Strain is always
dimensionless.

## Adapted from Fig. 6.1 (a) and (c), Callister 7e.

Stress-Strain Testing
Typical tensile test
machine

extensometer

Typical tensile
specimen

specimen

Fig. 6.2,
Callister 7e.

gauge
length

Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister 7e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W.
Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of
Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, 1965.)

## Typical response of a metal

engineering stress

## Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.

Callister 7e.

TS

F = fracture or
ultimate
strength

Necking

engineering strain