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Intermolecular Forces

Chapter 4
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Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces between molecules.
Intramolecular forces hold atoms together in a molecule.

Generally,
intermolecular
forces are much
weaker than
intramolecular
forces.

Measure of intermolecular force


boiling point
melting point
Hvap
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Intermolecular forces
Overview

There are 2 types of attraction in molecules:


intramolecular bonds & intermolecular forces
We have already looked at intramolecular bonds (ionic,
polar, non-polar)
Intermolecular forces (IMF) have to do with the attraction
between molecules (vs. the attraction between atoms in
a molecule)
IMFs come in six flavours: 1) ionic, 2) dipole - dipole, 3)
H-bonding, 4) London forces, 5) covalent (network
solids), 6) metallic
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Intermolecular forces (cont..)


IMFs come in six flavours: 1) ionic, 2)
dipole - dipole, 3) H-bonding, 4) London
forces, 5) covalent (network solids), 6)
metallic

Intermolecular Forces
Dipole-Dipole Forces
Attractive forces between polar molecules
Orientation of Polar Molecules in a Solid

Intermolecular Forces
Ion-Dipole Forces
Attractive forces between an ion and a polar molecule
Ion-Dipole Interaction

Intermolecular Forces
Dispersion Forces
Attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary
dipoles induced in atoms or molecules

ion-induced dipole interaction

dipole-induced dipole interaction


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Intermolecular Forces
Dispersion Forces Continued
Polarizability is the ease with which the electron distribution
in the atom or molecule can be distorted.
Polarizability increases with:

greater number of electrons

more diffuse electron cloud


Dispersion
forces usually
increase with
molar mass.
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What type(s) of intermolecular forces exist between


each of the following molecules?

HBr
HBr is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There are
also dispersion forces between HBr molecules.

CH4
CH4 is nonpolar: dispersion forces.

SO2

SO2 is a polar molecule: dipole-dipole forces. There are


also dispersion forces between SO2 molecules.
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Intermolecular Forces
Hydrogen Bond
The hydrogen bond is a special dipole-dipole interaction
between they hydrogen atom in a polar N-H, O-H, or F-H bond
and an electronegative O, N, or F atom.
A

HB

or

HA

A & B are N, O, or F

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Hydrogen Bond

11.2

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Why is the hydrogen bond considered a


special dipole-dipole interaction?

Decreasing molar mass


Decreasing boiling point

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Questions
Why do some solids dissolve in water but
others do not?
Why are some substances gases at room
temperature, but others are liquid or
solid?
What gives metals the ability to conduct
electricity, what makes non-metals brittle?
The answers have to do with

Intermolecular forces

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Ionic, Dipole - Dipole attractions


We have seen that molecules can have a
separation of charge
This happens in both ionic and polar bonds
(the greater the EN, the greater the dipoles)

Cl

Molecules are attracted to each other in a compound by


these +ve and -ve forces
+

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H - bonding
H-bonding is a special type of dipole - dipole
attraction that is very strong
It occurs when N, O, or F are bonded to H
Q- Calculate the EN for HCl and H2O
A- HCl = 2.9-2.1 = 0.8, H2O = 3.5-2.1 = 1.4

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The high EN of NH, OH, and HF bonds


cause these to be strong forces (about
5x stronger than normal dipole-dipole
forces)
They are given a special name (Hbonding) because compounds
containing these bonds are important in
biological systems
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London forces
Non-polar molecules do not have dipoles
like polar molecules. How, then, can nonpolar compounds form solids or liquids?
London forces are named after Fritz London
(also called van der Waal forces)
London forces are due to small dipoles that
exist in non-polar molecules

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London forces (cont..)


Because electrons are moving around in
atoms there will be instants when the
charge around an atom is not
symmetrical
The resulting tiny dipoles cause
attractions between atoms/molecules
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Because electrons are moving around in


atoms there will be instants when the
charge around an atom is not
symmetrical
The resulting tiny dipoles cause
attractions between atoms/molecules

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London forces
Instantaneous dipole:

Eventually electrons are


situated so that tiny dipoles
form

Induced dipole:

A dipole forms in one atom or


molecule, inducing a dipole in the
other
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