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ON

THE SEVEN QC

TOOLS

BY

N.K.GUPTA

TOOLS

THE SEVEN

Q.C.

TOOLS

TOOLS

judgment

b) Dr. kaoru Ishikawa, the leading figure in

development of Q.C. in Japan said Everybody

could solve 95% of problems around them

by using Q.C. Tools successfully.

c) QC tools are instruments for handling data and

diagnostic tools for Problem Solving

a)

Q.C. APPROACH

FACTS

Collect

Data

Process

Data

Process

Data

ACT

QC Tools are technique used in QC

activities for

Discovering Problem

Organizing Information

Generating ideas.

Analyzing causes.

Taking actions.

Effecting Improvements

Establishing control

b) Any technique that can be used effectively

in Quality Control for dealing with data is

defined as a QC Tools

a)

SIGNIFICANCE OF QC TOOLS

You cannot build a house without hammer

and nails.

b) Base for every thing on the facts.

c) Judgment and conclusion on numerical

data.

d) Helps in finding out exactly what is going

wrong.

a)

Unearthing Problem

Analyzing Problem

Taking Counter measures

Establishing Control

in workplace.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Pareto diagram.

Graph & Charts

Check Sheet

Histogram

Scatter Diagram

Control Chart

Additional

1. Run Chart

2. Flow Chart

A Diagram shaped like the bones of a fish for

systematically summarizing the relationship between

quality characteristics, defects etc and their causes.

Method

Manpower

Quality

Material

Machinery

When you need to explore and display all of the possible cause of a

specific problem or condition

Material

Method

Environment

CAUSE

Quality

Equipment

Measurement

EFFECT

DIAGRAM (ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM)

For searching out factors that affect the

characteristics.

results).

Gather the opinion of as many people as

factors.

STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING

A FISH BONE DIAGRAM

1.

2.

steps in the production process or any cause that

are helpful in organizing the most important factors.

3.

major categories.

4.

response as branches of the major causes.

5.

about

possible

causes

without

previous

preparation.

2: PARETO DIAGRAM

A Diagram on which undesirable events are stratifed

according to their causes or manifestation and plotted in

vertical bar graph in order of importance.

100

92

80

70

T y p e o f d e fe

77

60

60

60

50

50

46

40

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

20

10

PARETO CHART

100

90

C

F r

e q u e

n c

10

0

When you need to display the relative importance of all the problems of conditions in order to choose the starting point for problem solving monitor success or

identify the basic cause of a problem.

and relationship between different quantities.

Line Graph

Bar Graph

Pie Chart

LINE GRAPH

25

20

15

10

0

June'04

July 's 04

A ug' 04

Sep'04

BAR GRAPH

V elocit y

D is mis

Lack of

1s t Qt r

2 nd Qt r

3r d Qt r

Simply graph in which the entire circle represents 100% (Not 360

degrees) of data to be displayed.

The circle (Pie) is divided into percentage slices that show the

largest shares of data.

Shows relative proportiory.

PIE CHART

400

People

18% just

8%

1% dont

care

too

thin

right

4: CHECK SHEET

the question How often are certain events happening?

It starts the process of translating Opinions into facts

Problem

A

B

C

Total

II

II

IIII

9

II

III

II

7

Months

3

I

III

IIII IIII

14

Total

5

8

17

30

causes being adverse and graphing or charting them directly.

Check sheets have the systematic recording and compiling of data

from historical or current observations. This information can indicate

pattern and trends.

5: HISTOGRAM

It is graphical picture of a frequency table prepared by dividing the data range into sub

groups and counting the no.of points in each sub-group. The no. of points (The

frequency) is then plotted as a height on the diagram in bar graph form.

40

35

30

25

Frequency

20

15

10

5

0

3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3. 4

3. 5

3.6

3 .7

Thickness

HISTOGRAM

of data by bar graphing the no. of units in each

A Histogram takes measurement data temprature, dimension etc. and displays its

category.

distribution.

A Histogram reveals the amount of variation that any process has with in it.

A Histogram gives a Bird Eye Viewof the variation in a data set and provides us a

quick picture of the distribution for the measured characteristics.

HISTOGRAM - VARIABLITY

SMALL VARIABILITY

LARGE VARIABILITY

POSITIVELY OF SKEWED

NEGATIVELY SKEWED

Step 1 : Count the no. of data points in the set of data.

Step 2 : Determine the range, R for the entire data set.

Step 3 : Divide the range value into a certain no. of classes.

No. of Data Points

No. of Classes (K)

Under 50

57

50-100

6 10

100-250

7 12

Over 250

10 20

Step 4 : Determine the class width, H.

R

H=

Range

K

Step 5 : Determine the class boundary, or end point.

Step 6 : Construct a frequency table based on the values (No. of

classes, width and class boundary) The frequency table is

actually a Histogram in a tabular form.

Step 7 : Construct the Histogram based on the frequency table

There will be more detailed instructions for constructing histograms

than most of the other tools. This is being stressed because of the

confusion that seems to be crated when deciding on the nmo. Of

classes (bars), in the class boundaries, etc.

9.9

9.8

9.7

10.2

9.9

9.3

9

10

9.5

9.6

10.3

9.5

9.9

9.3

9.8

9.4

10.1

10.7

10.2

9.5

9.7

9.7

9.4

9.6

9.5

10.4

10.2

10.1

9.6

9.8

9.3

9.2

9.7

9.4

10.6

10.1

9.7

9.8

9.3

9.4

9.9

10

10.1

10.3

9.9

9.7

9.8

9.5

9.5

9.7

9.9

9.6

10.1

9.7

9.8

10.3

9.9

9.7

9.8

9.4

10.1

10.1

10.1

9.2

10.2

9.6

9.8

9.9

10

9.8

9.9

9.8

9.6

10

10.2

9.8

10

9.7

9.9

9.9

10.1

10.2

10.3

9.8

9.3

10

9.8

9.9

9.7

10

9.7

10.1

10

10.4

9.8

9.5

9.5

9.6

10.3

10.1

9.5

10

9.7

9.7

9.8

9.9

9.6 10.2

10

9.8

10.7 9.3

9.9

9.6

9.4

9.5

9.7

9.6

9.8 10.3

9.6

9.3

10

9.7

10.4

Step 1 : Counter the no. of data points in the set of data. For

our example above there are 125 data points (n=125)

The range is the smallest value in the set of data subtracted

from the largest value. In our case, the range is equal to 10.7 minus

9.0. Thus, the range equals 1.7.

referred to as K. the table below provides an approximate guideline

for dividing your set of data into a points would be broken down into

7-12 classes. We will use K=10 classes.

No. of Data Points

Under 50

50-100

100-250

Over 250

N. of Classes (K)

5-7

6-10

7-12

10-20

as follows.

R

H=

1.7

=

= .17

10

convenient no. for our purposes, .20 would appear

appropriate.

Step 5 : Determine the class boundary, or end point. Take the

smallest individual measurement and look at the right most

decimal place. Subtract half the right most decimal place

from this measurement. In our example the smallest

individual measurement was 9.0. Thus, subtract 0.05 from

9.0 to obtain the lowest class boundary of 8.95. Finally,

consecutively add the class width 0.20 (i.e. 8. 95, 9.15,

9.35) to lowest class boundary unit the correct no. of

classes, 10, obtained.

no. of classes, class width. Class boundary) computed above.

The frequency table is actually a histogram in a tabular

form. A frequency table based on the thickness. Data is

shown below:

Class

Class

Mid Point

Boundaries

1

8.95-9.15

9.05

2

9.15-9.35

9.25

3

9.35-9.55

9.45

4

9.55-9.75

9.65

5

9.75-9.95

9.85

6

9.95-10.15

10.05

7

10.15-10.35

10.25

8

10.35-10.55

10.45

9

10.55-10.75

10.65

10

10.75-10.95

10.85

Frequency

1

1111 1111

1111 1111 1111 1

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1

1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1111 1

1111 1111 11

11

1111

Total

1

9

16

27

31

23

12

2

4

0

A histogram is a graphical picture of a frequency table. It

provides us with a quick picture of the distribution for the

measured characteristic. A Histogram for our example is

shown below :

30

25

20

Frequency

15

10

5

0

8. 95

9. 1 5

9. 3 5

9. 55

9. 75

9. 9 5

Thickness

10. 2

10. 4

10. 6

10. 8

because it gives a Bird-eye-view of the variation in a data set. In

our case, the data appears to have a central tendency around 9.75

to 9.95. It also appears the data creates close to a normal curve.

The specification for the thickness characteristic is 7.5 to 10.5,

with a target of 9. Thus, we can see that our histogram indicates

the process is targeted high and that 3% may be above the upper

specification limit.

6 : SCATTER DIAGRAM

Variable 2

It is prepared by plotting paired sets of data such as hardness and tensile

strength and temperature & yield etc. against each other on X and Y axis.

A Scatter diagram is set up whereby the horizontal axis (X-axis) represent the

measurement values of one variable and the vertical axis (y-axis) represent the

measurement of second variable.

A Scatter diagram is used to study the possible relationship between one

variable and another.

The Scatter diagram is used to test for possible causes and effect relationship. It

can not prove that one variable causes the other but it does make it clear

whether a relationship exists and the and the strength of that relationship.

Variable 1

METHOD OF USE

Collect paired sets of data on causes and effects and use scatter diagram to

check for correction between the sets of data.

Use atleast 30 values, preferably around 100.

DIAGRAM

-Height vs wt.

y

-Trg. Vs performance

Positive Correlation

x

y

x

Possible Positive

Correlation

y

No Correlation

x

y

Possible Negative

Correlation

x

y

Negative Correlation

x

8: RUN CHART

A run chart or time series plot permits the study of observed data

for trends or patterns over time, where X-axis is time and Y-axis,

The measured variable.

Run charts are employed to visually represent data they are used

to monitor a system to see whether or not the long range average

is changing.

Run charts are simplest tool to construct and use point are plotted

on the graph in order in which they become available.

Run charts are used when you need to do the simplest possible

display of trends within observation points over a specified time

period.

Run chart is common to graph the result of a process such as

machine down time, yield, scrap, and productivity as they very

over time.

MEASUREMENT

TIME OR SEQUENCE

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