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TAS 3101 : WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER 9d :
Water
Treatment
Process :

CHAPTER 3:
Filtration
Environmental Microbiology

© SHAHRUL ISMAIL, DESc.


Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT University College of Science and Technology Malaysia
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1) Introduction
2) Filtration Methods
3) Filtration Types:
- Gravity Filter
- Pressure Filter
4) Percentage of filtered water
5) Filter Sand
6) Filter Gravel

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Introduction

- Water management begins with knowing the quantity of water


available
- Basic information on water measurement units and convenient
conversion factors.
- Conversion factors simplify changing from one unit of measurement to
another.
- There are two conditions under which water is measured—water at
rest and water in motion. Water at rest is measured in units of volume.
Water in motion is measured in units of flow— unit of volume for a
convenient time unit. It is important that the difference between a unit of
volume and a unit of flow be kept in mind.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filtration
- Passage of water through a porous medium to remove
remaining flocs or suspended solids.

- Needed for most surface waters in order to provide a second


barrier against the transmission of water borne disease

1) Suspended matter and colloidal matter are removed

2) Chemical characteristic of water are changed

3) Number of bacteria materially reduced.

- Assist significantly by reducing the load on the disinfections


process, increasing disinfection efficiency.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filtration - Mechanism

MECHANICAL SEDIMENTATION &


STRAINING ADSORPTION

METHODS

BIOLOGICAL ELECTROLYTIC
METABOLISM ACTION

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Mechanical Straining
- Size of suspended solid is bigger than size of porous medium

- Removing such particles of suspended matter as are too large


to pass through the interstices between size grains

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Sedimentation & Absorption

1. The interstices between the sand grains act as sedimentation


basins in which the suspended particles smaller than the
voids in the filter-bed settle upon the sides of the sand grains

2. The particles stick on the grains because the physical


attraction between the two particles of matter and because of
the presence of the gelatinous coating formed on the sand
grains by the previously deposited bacteria and colloidal
matter.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Biological Metabolism

1. “ The growth and life process of the living cells”

2. The surface layer gets coated with a zoogleal film in which the
bacterial activities are the highest and which feed on the organic
impurities.

3. The coated converts organic impurities by a complex biochemical


action into simple, harmless compounds – purification of water.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Electrolytic Action

1. Due to the friction between medium and suspended solids

2. A certain amount of dissolved and suspended matter is


ionized.

3. Suspended matter in water is ionized, carries charge of one polarity


and the particles of sand in filter which are also ionized, possess
electrical charges of opposite polarity.

4. These neutralize each other; change the chemical character of water

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filtration - Types
1) PRESSURE FILTER SYSTEM

2) GRAVITY FILTER SYSTEM

- Commonly used

- Two (2) general categories

1. Slow Sand Filter (SSF)

- 0.1 – 0.5 m/h ~ 0.2 m/h

2. Rapid Sand Filter (RSF)

- 3 – 12.5 m/h ~ 5 - 7.5m/h

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Slow Sand Filter
1) Action at the surface of the sand bed

2) Surface gets coated with a skin or layer formed due to the


bacterial action of finely suspended matter, plankton and other
organic matter present in raw water, with algae, bacteria etc.
previously coated on the surface of the sand-bed by the water
itself – “ schmutzdecke”.

3) Below this layer and up to 30 cm, present other bacterial zones-


completely oxidize the organic matter, destroy most of the
bacteria present and let only simple and unobjectionable
inorganic salts to pass through the filter bed into the effluent.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Rapid Sand Filter (RSF)

- Straining action – Throughout the depth of the filter sand rather than on
the surface or to a small distance below this.

- Other action – complex biological and chemical changes as water passes


through the sand-bed as SSF.

- Previously coated material is important - Necessary for waters to be


coagulated before they are allowed to pass through the rapid sand filter.

- Other factors : Proper thickness of sand-bed, size of the sand grains.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Gravity Flow

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Rapid Sand Filter (RSF)

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filtered Water Percentage
Percentage of filtered water :

i) Quantity of filtered water every 24 hours operation, ∀f = Qfto

ii) Filter area, As = Qf / Vof

iii) Quantity of wash water, i) QBW = As x VOBW (ii) ∀BW = QBW x t

iv) Percentage of filtered water = ∀BW / ∀f x 100%

Where;

∀f = Quantity, m3 QBW = Flow of wash water, m3/min

to = 24 VOBW = Rate of washing

Qf = flow rate As = filter area, m2

V = Rate of filtration
of ∀ = Quantity of wash water, m3
Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST,BWUMT
Gravity Filter System
ITEMS SSF RSF

Filtration rate (m3/m2/hr) 0.1 – 0.2 3 – 12.5

Area (m2) 50 – 2000 (more area) < 400 (less area)

Size of sand (mm) 0.3 – 0.35 > 0.55

Distribution of medium Not stratum Stratum


size
Washing method Replace the upper layer Backwash
of sand
Operation Cost Low High

Efficiency of disinfections 99% 60%

Supervision Simple Skilled

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Gravity Filter System
ITEMS SSF RSF
Loss of head Very small – 0.6 – 0.9 m More – 2.5 – 3m

Coagulation Not required Required – satisfactory


filtration
Period of cleaning Once every 2 – 3 24 – 48 hours
months
Amount of wash water 0.2 – 0.6 percent of 2 – 4 percent of
filtered water filtered
Maintenance cost Small More because of
maintenance of pumps
for pumping up wash-
water and a
compressor unit for
obtaining compressed
air.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Pressure Filter
1) Water is allowed to pass under a pressure greater than
atmospheric pressure through a closed cylinder. The force
gravity has no function.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filter Sand
1) Free from clay, loam, vegetable or organic matter

2) Uniform and proper size

i. If the sand is too fine, it tends to quickly clog causing a greater loss
of head in the filter

ii. If the sand is too coarse, it will permit suspended solids and bacteria
passes through the voids between the sand grains.

3) Filter sand classification :

- Effective size, Uniformity coefficient, Percent size

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filter Gravel
1) No function in the actual purification of water

2) Slow sand filter :

Simply supports the sand-bed

3) Rapid sand filter :

Serve to distribute the wash water evenly throughout the sand

4) Usually placed in five or six layers; finest layer on top

5) Hard, rounded and durable.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filtration – Other types
1) PRESSURE FILTER

2) DOUBLE FILTRATION

3) MICROSTRAINING

4) DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTERS

5) IN-DEPTH FILTRATION

6) DUAL MEDIA FILTERS

i) Dual media filters ii) Mixed Media Filters

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Problems!!!!
Determine the percentage of filtered water
required for washwater based on the following
criteria :

Flow, Qf = 300 L/s

Rate of filtration, Vof = 170m3/m2.day

Time of washing = 10 min

Rate of washing, VoBW = 15 mm/s

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


Filter Sand – Effective Size

1) Effective size :

i. The seize size in mm, permits 10 percent of the sand,


which permits 10 percent of the sand, by weight to pass -
size of the grain that is larger than 10 percent by weight of all
the particles comprising the sand.

ii. Indicate the minimum size of 90 percent by weight of the


sand.

iii. Consideration of variable in individual grain size.

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Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT
Filter Sand – Uniformity Coefficient

2) Uniformity coefficient :

i. Expression of the degree of variation

ii. The ratio between the size, that will pass 60 percent by
weight to the effective size – the ratio of the particle size
which is coarser than 60 percent by weight to the sand to
the effective size of sand.

iii. E.g. if sand has an effective size of 0.50 mm and 60


percent of sand passes a 0.80 mm, the uniformity coefficient
=
= 1.60
0.80
0.50
Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT [NEXT]
Filter Sand – Percent Size

3) Percent Size

i. The size of the grain that has the given percent, by weight,
of materials finer in size.

ii. Percent size specified = 1, 10, 60 and 90 percent

iii. E.g. A percent size of 10 means that 10 percent of the sand


is smaller than the grain size given.

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT


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THANKS FOR
YOUR ATTENTION…..

Izan Jaafar, Engineering Science, FST, UMT