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Reynolds Transport Theorem

Steven A. Jones
Biomedical Engineering
January 8, 2008

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Things to File Away


Divergence Theorem
If the integral of some differential entity
over an arbitrary sample volume is zero,
then the differential entity itself is zero.

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Conservation Laws
Conservation of mass:
Increase of mass = mass generated + mass flux

Conservation of momentum
Increase of momentum = momentum generated +
momentum flux
Conservation of energy
Increase of energy = energy generated + energy flux
If more mass goes in
than comes out, mass
accumulates (unless it
is destroyed).
If we take in more
calories than we use,
we get fat.
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Conservation Laws: Mathematically


All three conservation laws can be expressed mathematically
as follows:

d d
dV v ndA
CS
dt
dt CV
Production of the
entity (e.g. mass,
momentum,
energy)

Increase of
entity per unit
volume

Flux of entity per unit


volume out of the surface
of the volume

(n is the outward normal)


is some entity. It could be mass, energy or momentum.

is some property per unit volume. It could be density, or


specific energy, or momentum per unit volume.

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The Bowling Ball


If you are on a skateboard, traveling west
and someone throws a bowling ball to you
from the south, what happens to your
westward velocity component?

myou v you mball 0 myou mball v you and ball


myou
myou mball

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vyou and ball


vyou

vyou and ball vyou


(You slow down).

Reynolds Transport Theorem:


Mass
If we are concerned with the entity mass, then the
property is mass per unit volume, i.e. density.

dm d
dV v ndA
CS
dt dt CV
Production of
mass within
the volume

Effect of
increased mass
on density within
the volume.

Flux of mass through


the surface of the
volume

Mass can be produced by:


1. Nuclear reactions.
2. Considering a certain species (e.g. production of ATP).
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Reynolds Transport Theorem:


Momentum
If we are concerned with the entity mass, then the
property is mass per unit volume, i.e. density.
d mvx
dt
Production of
momentum
within the
volume

d
vx dV vx v ndA
CS
dt CV
Increase of
momentum within
the volume.

Momentum can be produced by:


External Forces.

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Flux of momentum
through the surface of
the volume

Mass Conservation in an Alveolus


dm d
dV v ndA
CS
dt dt CV
Density remains constant, but mass increases
because the control volume (the alveolus)
increases in size. Thus, the limits of the
integration change with time.
Term 1: There is no production of mass.
Control Volume (CV)

Term 2: Density is constant, but the control


volume is growing in time, so this term is positive.

Control Surface CS

Term 3: Flow of air is into the alveolus at the inlet,


so this term is negative and cancels Term 2.

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Mass Conservation in an Alveolus


dm d
dV v ndA
CS
dt dt CV
N2, O2,
CO2 and
others.

O2
Can look separately at O2
and CO2.
CO2

Third term is different:


(Inflow of O2 from the bronchiole) (Outflow of O2 into the capillary system)

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Heating of a Closed Alveolus


dm d
dV v ndA
CS
dt dt CV
Density can be destroyed
through energy influx, but
the transport theorem still
holds.
Heat
Term 1 is zero. No mass is created inside the control volume.
Term 2 is zero. The decrease in density is cancelled by the
increase in volume.
Term 3 is zero. There is no flux of mass through the walls.
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Air Compressed into a Rigid Vessel


dm d
dV v ndA
CS
dt dt CV
Density increases so mass increases while the
control volume (vessel) remains constant.
Term 1: There is no production of mass in the
container.
Term 2: There is an increase in the total mass
of air in the container.
Region R(m)
Surface S(m)
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Term 3: There is flow of air into the alveolus at


the inlet.

Differential Form
dx
vy

vy

dy
vz

vx
vz

x x

vx

dz

Along the 2 faces shown, vy and vz do


not contribute to changes
in the mass
x
within the cube. Only vx contributes.

dm d
dV v ndA
CS
dt dt CV

The left hand term is production of mass. The first term on the right is an
increase in density within the cube, and the second term on the right is the
outward flux of fluid. If the control volume is stationary, then:

d
d

dV

dV

CV
CS
dt
dt

Because mass is not being created or destroyed, the left hand term is 0.
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Differential Form Conservation of


Mass
dx
vy

vy

dy
vz

vx
vz

x x

dm d
dV v ndA
CS
dt dt CV

vx

We can get a differential form if we


convert the last integral to a volume
integral. The divergence theorem says:

dz

CS

v ndA

CV

v dV

dm d
so
dV v dV
CV
dt dt CV
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Differential Form
0

x dx v x x dx x v x x

t
dx

y dy v y y dy y v y y

dy

z dz v z z dz z v z z

dz

v x v y v z
0

t x
y
z
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vy

vy
xv

vz

x x
x

vz

Continuity Equation,
Differential Form

vx

Divergence
Conservation of mass reduces to:

v 0
t
If density is constant then v 0.

When is density constant?

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Constant Density
Generally density is taken as constant when
the Mach number Mv/c is much less than 1
(where c is the speed of sound).
For biological and chemical applications,
this condition is almost always true.
For design of aircraft, changes in density
cannot necessarily be ignored.
In acoustics (but nobody pays any attention
when I say this).
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RTT Applied to Momentum


d
d
dV v ndA
CS
dt
dt CV
Production of the
entity (e.g. mass,
momentum,
energy)

Increase of
entity per unit
volume

Flux of entity per unit


volume out of the surface
of the volume
(n is the outward normal)

r
r
is now momentum. rmv r
is momentum per unit volume. v
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RTT Applied to Momentum


d
d
dV v ndA
CS
dt
dt CV
Production of the
entity momentum

Increase of
momentum per
unit volume

Flux of momentum per unit


volume out of the surface
of the volume
(n is the outward normal)

r
r
is now momentum. rmv r
is momentum per unit volume. v
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RTT Applied to Momentum


r
d mv syst
dt

d
r
r r
vdV v v ndA
CS
dt CV

This v is part of the property being transported.

This v transports the property.

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RTT Applied to Momentum


r
d mv syst
dt

d
r
r r
vdV v v ndA
CS
dt CV

Momentum has three components. Therefore, this is really 3 equations.


Momentum is produced by external forces. Therefore, the first term
represents the forces on the control volume.

d
r
r r
F dt CV vdV CS v v ndA
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Example 3.7
F

v2

What resultant force is


required to hold the section
of tubing in place?

d
r
r r
F dt CV vdV CS v v ndA
Steady state

v1

CS

White reduces to:

r r
v v ndA 2 A2 v 2 v 2 n 2 1 A1v1 v1 n1

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A2 v 2 V2 1 A1 v1 V1 m& v 2 v1

Example 3.7
F

v2

v1 n1

V1

v 2 n 2

V2

Fx 2 A2V2 V2 1 AV
1 1 cos V1
v1

Fy 2 A2V2 sin 0 V2 1 AV
1 1 sin V1
1 AV
1 1 sin V1
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Momentum and Pressure

Pout

Pin

wall

r
d mv syst
dt
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d
r
r r
vdV v v ndA
CS
dt CV

CS

Example 3.1 from White


2

Find the rate of change of


energy in the control volume.

CV
1
3

V (m/s)

A (m2)

e (J/kg)

Inlet

(kg/m2)
800

300

Inlet

800

100

Outlet

800

17

150

Section

Type

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Example 3.1 Continued


d
dE


dt syst dt

CV

e dV e3m&3 e1m&1 e2 m&2

If the system is in steady state (i.e. there is no change with


time of the energy within the control volume), then the
integral is zero. Thus, the loss of energy through the control
surface must be balanced by a production of energy.
This example is a bit misleading because production may
be considered to be a flux of energy through the control
surface. However, production could also be caused by, for
example, a chemical reaction.
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Example 3.1 Continued


dE
1 1 e2 2 A2V2

e3 3 A3V3 e1 1 AV
dt syst

4.08 MW
-1.92 MW

-2.4 MW

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-2.4 + -1.92 = -4.32 (>4.08),


so there is more energy
coming in than going out.
Therefore, the box must
destroy the energy (e.g. by
doing work).