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Elastic

Constant

ELASTIC CONSTANTS IN
ISOTROPIC MATERIALS
1.Elasticity Modulus (E)
2. Poissons Ratio ( )
3. Shear Modulus (G)
4. Bulk Modulus (K)

1. Modulus of Elasticity, E
(Youngs Modulus)

simple
tension
test

E
Linearelastic

=E

Units:
E: [GPa]

Slope of stress strain plot (which is


proportional to the elastic modulus)
depends on bond strength of metal

E
=

Adapted from Fig. 6.7,


Callister 7e.

2. Poisson's ratio,
is the ratio of
transverse contraction strain
to longitudinal extension
strain in the direction of
stretching force.
Either transverse strain or
longitudional strain is
negative, is positive

simple
L tension
test

L
T : Transverse Strain
L : Longitudional Strain
Units:
: dimensionless

Virtually all common materials


undergo a transverse contraction
when stretched in one direction and a
transverse expansion when
compressed.
In an isotropic material the allowable
(theoretical) range of Poisson's ratio is
from -1.0 to +0.5, based on the theory
metals: ~ 0.33
of
elasticity
ceramics:
~ 0.25.
polymers: ~ 0.40

3. Shear Modulus, G

M
simple
torsion
test

=G
M

Units:
G: [GPa]

4. Bulk Modulus, K
P

Initial Volume =
V0

Volume Change
= VV

avg = K

Vo

avg is the average


of three stresses
applied along
three principal
directions.

P
avg
V
K

Vo
Units:
K: [GPa]

Elastic
Constants
= E

= G

avg =

Stress
es

Vo

Strain
s

Normal
Shear
Volumetri
c

Example:

Uniaxial Loading of a Prismatic


Specimen
P=1000
kgf
9.9 cm

10
cm

Determi
ne E and

10.4
cm

10
cm
10
cm

Before

9.9 cm

After

P=1000 kgf

P=1000kgf
=

d/2=0.05c
m

l/2=0.2c
m

10cm

E
=
long
=

10cm
1000 kgf

100
0
10*1
0

=
10kgf/cm2

1
= 0 = 250 kgf/cm2
0.0
4
l
0.
=
=0.0
l0
1
0
4
4

d
lat=
d0
=-

10
0.1

0.0
0.01
4

= -0.01
=
0.25

For an isotropic material the stress-

strain relations are as follows:

RELATION B/W K & E

Consider a cube with a unit volume

D
1
C

1
A

causes an elongation in the


direction CD and contraction in the
directions AB & BC.
The new dimensions of the cube
is :
CD direction is 1+
BC direction is 1-
AB direction is 1-

V0 = 1
Final volume Vf of the cube is now:

(1+) (1-) (1-) = (1+) (1-2+22)


= 1 - 2 + 22 + -22 + 23
= 1 + - 2 - 22 + 22 + 23
is small, 2 & 3 are smaller and can be
neglected.

Vf = 1+ - 2 V = Vf - V0 = (1-2)
If equal tensile stresses are applied to

each of the other two pairs of faces of


the cube than the total change in volume
will be :

(1-2) +
V = 3 (1-2) =

avg

(++)/
K=
= 3
3 (1V/V0
2)
K=

E
3 (1-

+
(1-2) +

(1-2)

3 (12)

3 (12)

The relation

between K and E
is :

K=

E
3 (12)

Moreover the relation

between G and E is :

The relation

between G, E and K
is :

G
=
1
E

E
2
(1+)
=

1
1
+
9K
3G

Therefore, out of the four


elastic constants only two of
them are independent.

For very soft materials such as pastes,

gels, putties, K is very large

Note that as K 0.5 & E 3G


If K is very large V/V0 0 *No volume

change
For materials like metals, fibers & certain

plastics K must be considered.

Modulus of Elasticity :
High in covalent compounds such as

diamond
Lower in metallic and ionic crystals
Lowest in molecular amorphous solids
such as plastics and rubber.

Elastic Constants of Some


Materials
E(psi)x106
G(psi)x106

(GPa)
Cast Iron
16
110
Steel
30
205
Aluminu
10
70
m
Concrete 1.5-5.5
1040
Wood
Long 1.81
12

(GPa)

(-)

7.4

50

0.17

11.8

80

0.26

3.6

25

0.33

0.62-2.30
15
0.11
0.7

4-

0.2

Thank You