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RESEARCH

-derived from the old french word


cerchier(to seek or search)

RESEARCH
-is a careful and systematic means
of solving problems(Thomas and
Nelson, 1996)

RESEARCH
-a process, an activity in the search
for knowledge through recognized
methods of collection, analysis and
interpretation(Wiersma, 1995)

RESEARCH
-the systematic search for pertinent
information of a specific topic or
problem(Aquino)

RESEARCH
-a work of love-love for achievement
and discovery, love for creativity,
love for innovation or originality,
love for ones chosen field of
specialization, and above all love
for humanity(J. Soriano)

RESEARCH
-a methodical, basically a habit of
thought that can be developed
(Maranon)

3 REASONS OF DOING RESEARCH


1.For more explanations
2. For verifiable truth
3. To make discoveries

RESEARCH is the formal and


intensive process of carrying on a
scientific method of analysis. It is a
systematic and objective analysis
and recording of controlled
observations that may lead to the
development of principles.

VALUES OF RESEARCH
General Purpose:
-the preservation and improvement
of the quality of human life(to serve
man and make his life better)

Specific Purposes:
1. To discover new facts or new
truths about known phenomenon
for primal existence.

2. To find answers to problems


which are only practically solved by
other fields of discipline.

3. To improve existing methods and


techniques.

4. To discover the dangers of


abusive use of unprescribed drugs
and some poisonous substances.

5. To provide the educational


system order, related, valid
generalizations into systematized
science.

6. To provide basis for correct


action, and decision-making in
education, business, industry,
nursing, medical field, accountancy,
law-enforcement, engineering, and
architecture, among others.

7. To satisfy the researchers


curiosity by searching again
exhaustively new facts either for
personal satisfaction, institutional
benefit or societys gain.

8. To find answers to queries by


means of scientific studies, as to
who comes first, eggs or hen.

9. To acquire a better and deeper


understanding about one
phenomenon that can be known
and understood better by research,
such as why women are generally
smaller than men

10. To expand or verify existing


knowledge.

11.To improve educational


practices, business practices,
medical practices, among others, to
raise the quality of mankind.

12. To provide man with more of his


basic and social needs.

13. To determine as unambiguously


as possible either to accept or
reject the null hypothesis.

14. To determine whether the


assumption of such specific
problem is assumed to be true or
false.

ESSENTIAL FACTORS FOR


EFFECTIVE RESEARCH
Money

Research

Men

Materials

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
RESEARCH(Ariola)
1. Research is systematic.
-it follows an orderly and sequential
procedure that leads to the
discovery of the truth or solution.

2. Research is controlled.
-all variables, except those that are
tested or being experimented upon,
are kept constant

3. Research is empirical.
- All the procedures employed and
the data gathered are perceived in
the same manner by all observers.

4. Research is analytical.
-the data of all researchers have to
be analyzed, presented and
interpreted.

5. Research is objective, unbiased,


and logical.
- All the findings and conclusions
are logically based on empirical
data

6. Research employs hypothesis.

7. Research employs qualitative or


statistical methods.
-data are transformed into
numerical measures and are treated
statistically to determine their
significance or usefulness

8. Research is original work.

9. Research is done by an expert.

10. Research is a patient and


unhurried activity.
-a research carelessly done due to
racing against time may lead to
incorrect findings and shaky
conclusions.

11. Research requires an effortmaking capacity.


-involves much work, time,
personnel, and money.

12. Research requires courage.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

RESEARCH PROCESS
Identification of the Research
Problem
Data Collection
Analysis
Summarizing Results
Drawing Conclusions

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN
RESEARCH
1. Difficulty of Recognizing
Problems.
2. Duplication
3. Indifference of People to
Research

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM


-problem, topic, thesis
subject
*The problem is the heart of the
research project.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD
PROBLEM
1. Topics should recognize the
importance of daily occurences.

2. Research is more than compiling,


counting and tabulating data. It
involves deducting the
consequences of hypothesis
through careful observation and the
application of rigorous logic.

3. Research is a process of testing


rather than proving, and it implies
an objectivity that let the data lead
where they will.

4. Most research students tend to


select narrow, practical problems
that are closely related to their
school experience but rarely have
great theoretical significance.

5. The problem must have practical


value.

6. It has a boundary line. One could


glean limitations.

7. It shows the goal of the study.

8. It is eye-catching and functional.

CERTAIN FACTORS IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM

EXTERNAL FACTORS
-have to do with such matters as novelty,
importance in the field, availability of
data and method, and institutional or
administrative cooperation.

PERSONAL FACTORS
-involve such considerations as
interest, training, cost, time, and
others

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

1. The research problem must be chosen


by the researcher himself to avoid
blaming others or offering excuses for
any obstacle encountered later.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

2. The research problem must be within


the interest of the researcher.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

3. The research problem must be within


the specialization of the researcher.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

4. The research problem must be within


the researchers competence to tackle.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

5. The research problem must be within


the ability of the researcher to finance.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

6. The research problem must be


researchable and manageable. A
research problem is one in which:
a. the data are available and accessible.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

b. the data meet the standard of


accuracy, objectivity, and verifiability
c. the answers to the specific questions
can be found or collected

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

d. hypotheses formulated are testable


e. the equipment and research
instruments are available and can
give valid and reliable results.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

7. The research problem can be


completed within a reasonable period of
time except if it is a longitudinal research
which takes a long period for its
completion.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

8. The research problem must be


significant and relevant to the present
time and situation and of current interest.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

9. The results of the study are practical


and implementable.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

10. The research problem must be


original or novel and requires reflective
thinking to solve it.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

11. The research problem can be


delineated to suit the resources of the
researcher but big or large enough to be
able to give significant, valid, reliable
results and generalizations.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

12. The research study must contribute


to the regional and national development
goals for the improvement of the quality
of human life.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

13. The research study must contribute


to the fund of human knowledge or add a
new bit of knowledge to what is already
existing.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

14. The research study must pave the


way for the solution of the problems
intended to be solved.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

15. It must not undermine the moral and


spiritual values of the people.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

16. It must not advocate violent change


but by peaceful means.

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

17. There must be a return(benefits) of


some kind to the researcher

GUIDELINES IN THE SELECTION OF A RESEARCH


PROBLEM OR TOPIC (Calderon And Gonzales, 1993)

18. There must be consideration of the


hazards involved, either physical, social,
or legal considerations.

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


1. Do not use a problem in research as a
method for achieving self-enlightenment
or solving a personal problem.

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


2. Problems whose sole purpose is
merely to compare two sets of data are
not suitable research problems.
Example:
a. What are the directions of the
Philippine economy during the Ramos
and Arroyo administrations?

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


3. Finding a coefficient of correlation
between two sets of data merely to show
a relationship between those data sets is
not acceptable as a problem for research.

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


4. Problems that result in a YES or NO
answers are not problems for research.
Example:
Is homework beneficial to children?

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


5. Those that deal with ethical(or moral)
questions.
Examples:
-Is there a relationship between
premarital sex and class achievement?
-Do parents marital relationship affect
students class achievement?

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


6. Questions that do not require a mental
struggle. Research involves logical
thinking.
ExampleS:
-How many female students are enrolled
in Algebra?
-How many faculty members wear
eyeglasses?

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


7. When a machine can take the place of
a researcher to provide answers to
questions.
Example:
-Are you offering computer course?

WHAT ARE NOT RESEARCH PROBLEMS


8. Metaphysical questions where it is
impossible to collect publicly verifiable
data and information in order to answer
the question.
Example:
-Is there a God?

QUALIFICATIONS OF A GOOD
RESEARCHER(Calmorin,2004)
R research oriented
E efficient
S scientific
E effective
A active
R resourceful
C creative
H honest
E economical
R - religious