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INTRODUCTION

The Earth is divided into

4 Sub-systems or
Spheres namely:
ATMOS(Gaseous)-

SPHERE.
HYDRO(Water)- SPHERE
LITHOS(Rocky)-SPHERE
BIOS(Life)-SPHERE

They are interdependent

and function as a whole.

LITHOSPHERE
Derived from GREEK word

LITHOS meaning Rocky/


Stone.
It is primarily the rocky and
stony part covering the
whole earth surface ; on
which the interaction of the
other Geo-spheres happen.
The term was coined by
JOSEPH BARRELL (1914) who
first studied the motion of
lithosphere over a molten
layer i.e. Aesthenosphere.

PROCESSES OF STUDYING LITHOSPHERE

REMOTE SENSING
(SATELIITE IMAGERY)

VOLCANIC ERUPTION

EARTHQUAKE

PROCESSES OF STUDYING
LITHOSPHERE
P-WAVES, or primary waves, are the
fastest moving waves. They originate
in the focus and move outward
through
all states of matter. P-waves cause
back and forth motion in matter. Can
pass through liquid medium.
S-WAVES, or secondary waves,
originate at
the focus and pass only through
solids, causing movement from side
to
side. Cannot pass through liquid
medium.
L-WAVES, or long waves, are surface
waves. They are the slowest of the

Tectonic Plate Theory

Tectonic Plate Theory


Three types of plate boundaries exist, characterized by the way the plates move
relative to each other. They are associated with different types of surface
phenomena. The different types of plate boundaries are:
1. Transform boundaries (Conservative) occur where plates slide or, perhaps
more accurately, grind past each other along transform faults. The relative
motion of the two plates is either sinistral (left side toward the observer) or
dextral (right side toward the observer). The San Andreas Fault in California is an
example of a transform boundary exhibiting dextral motion.
2. Divergent boundaries (Constructive) occur where two plates slide apart from

each other. Mid-ocean ridges (e.g., Mid-Atlantic Ridge) and active zones of rifting
(such as Africa's East African Rift) are both examples of divergent boundaries.
3. Convergent boundaries (Destructive) (or active margins) occur where two

plates slide towards each other commonly forming either a subduction zone (if
one plate moves underneath the other) or a continental collision (if the two
plates contain continental crust). Deep marine trenches are typically associated
with subduction zones, and the basins that develop along the active boundary
are often called "foreland basins". Examples of this are the Andes mountain
range in South America and the Japanese island arc.

STRUCTURE OF
LITHOSPHERE

STRUCTURE OF
LITHOSPHERE(contd..)
Oceanic Lithosphere
It consists mainly of mafic(rich in magnesium and iron) crust and ultramafic(over 90%

mafic) mantle and is denser than continental lithosphere.

Continental Lithosphere
It is also called the Continental crust. It is the layer of igneous, sedimentary rock that forms

the continents and the continental shelves. This layer consists mostly of granitic rock.

CRUST:
It is the outermost layer of the earth with average density of 2.8- 3.0 g/cm3 and average

thickness of 30 km. It consists of the continental crust and the oceanic crust. Life exists in
this layer.

MANTLE:
It is the second layer of the earth and extends from 30km- 2900km with an average density

of 2.7 g/cm3 .
It contains 83% of the total volume and 68% of the total mass of the earth.
It is made up of silicate rich iron and magnesium and is divided from the crust by a
discontinuity called as MOHOROVICIC DISCONTINUITY.

CORE:
It is the deepest layer of earth. It extends from a distance of 2900km 6371 km with an

average density of 4.3- 11 g/cm3 . Mantle and core boundary is called as WEICHARTGUTENBERG Discontinuity.
Core volume is 16% of earths total volume and core mass is 32% of earths total mass.
It is further divided into 2 sub-zones by the discontinuity called as LEHMANN- BULLEN
Discontinuity.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
LITHOSPHERE
According to E. Seuss the earths
layers can be broadly divided into 3
types on the basis of chemical
composition:
SIAL- located below crust,
average density is 2.7 g/cm3,
thickness ranges between 50300km; dominated by acid
materials.
SIMA- located below sialic layer,
average density is 2.9- 4.7 g/cm3 ,
thickness ranges between 10002000km; dominated by basic
matter
NIFE- made up of heavy metals,
avg. density is 11 g/cm3 . Diameter
is 688O km. Magnetic property.

ROCKS
Igneous Rock

Igneous rocks are formed from the molten liquid minerals that
lie below the earth's crust. They're formed from magma that
cools beneath the earth's surface or from lava that cools upon
the earth's surface. These two methods of igneous rock
formation are known as intrusive and extrusive, respectively.
Basalt is the most common type of igneous rock and it covers
the ocean floor and thus, exists over two-thirds of the earth's
surface.
Sedimentary Rock

Sedimentary rocks are formed by the lithification (cementing,


compacting, and hardening) of existing rock or the bones,
shells, and pieces of formerly living things. Rocks are
weathered and eroded into tiny particles which are then
transported and deposited along with other pieces of rock
called sediments. Approximately three-quarters of the earth's
bedrock on the continents is sedimentary.
Metamorphic Rock

Metamorphic rock, which comes from the Greek to "change


form," is formed by applying great pressure and temperature
to existing rock converting it into a new distinct type of rock.
Igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and even other
metamorphic rocks and be modified into metamorphic rocks.

SOIL

It can be defined as any part of earth crust on which plants root. The
whole process of soil formation can generally be divided into 2 stages.:
Weathering
Pedogenesis

SOIL PROFILE
Soil depth worldwide averages a mere six inches
(15 cm). Soil and its underlying layers are
classified into layers known as "horizons." From
the surface to the bedrock, these layers are:
O Horizon - The top layer of soil, composed
primarily of organic material, such as the litter
of leaves and plants, insects, and
microorganisms.
A Horizon - Also known as the topsoil, where
seeds germinate and plants' roots thrive.
Composed of sand and silt. Minerals and clay
have been removed in a process known as
eluviation.
B Horizon - Also known as the subsoil, this layer
contains mineral deposits that have settled
down from upper layers. Also called layer of
Illuviation.
C Horizon - This layer is called the regolith and
consists of rocks and little organic material
(even roots don't penetrate this layer).
R Horizon - The "R" in R horizon stands for rock
and it refers to the unconsolidated rock or solid
bedrock of this layer.