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# Linear Control Systems

Obaid Sabir
Assistant Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering

## Introduction to Control Systems

Control systems plays a vital role in our dayto-day life
Provides a background of control principles in
various engineering applications.
Basic mathematical tools such as Laplace
transform, transfer function, block diagram,
signal flow graph, mathematical modeling of
dynamic systems, time response analysis,
stability of linear system, root locus and
frequency domain analysis are utilized.

Basic Definitions
System: an arrangement or combination of different
physical components that are connected or related
together to form an entire unit to achieve/perform a
certain objective
Systems can be physical, economical, biological
Control: to regulate, direct or command a system so that
a certain output is achieved.
Control system: interconnection of components to
provide a desired function
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## Plant: a piece of equipment, set of machines

functioning together to perform a particular operation.
Any physical object to be controlled.
E.g.: Mechanical devices, heating furnace, spacecrafts.
Process: Progressively continuing operation which
occurs in a series of controlled actions systematically
towards a particular result. Any operation to be
controlled.
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Basic Components
Inputs
(Objective)

Plant / Process

Outputs
(Results)

## Input: applied signal or excitation signal that is applied to a

control system
Output: The actual response that is obtained from a control
system due to the application of the input
Plant is fixed. Output produced is fixed.
Block Diagram: identifies the major components of the
systems in the form of blocks. Shows the direction of
information and energy flow from one component to another
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Disturbance
Inputs
(Objective)

Controller

Plant /
Process

Outputs
(Results)

## Controller: a component of the system which generates a manipulated

signal to the input to produce a desired output.
Disturbance: a signal that tends to affect the value of the output of a
system.
Internal Disturbance: vibration, sound
External Disturbance: Wind, surroundings, noises.
Actuators: Apply force or torque to the physical system
Sensor: Measure system behavior.
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Examples
Cruise Control in Cars:
Automobile is the Plant
The actuator is the engine which generates propulsive forces that
turn the wheel
The Sensor is the tachometer, which measures the vehicle speed
Other example:
Climate control
Traction control
Industrial Automation (Assembly lines)
Robotics
Solar Trackers

Output Signal

## Transient: instantaneous change of the input against the

gradual change of output. Physical system undergoes
Steady State: Approximation to the command or desired
response. Occurs when system near the desired output.
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We build control systems for four primary reason:
i.Power Amplification (Gain)
Positioning of a large radar antenna by low-power rotation
of a knob

ii.Remote Control
Robotic arm used to pick up radioactive materials

## iii.Convenience of Input Form

Changing room temperature by thermostat position

## iv.Compensation for Disturbances

Controlling antenna position in the presence of large wind
disturbance torque

## Classification of Control Systems

Depending on the relation of the control action
with the output, any control system can be
classified as:
Open - loop system
Closed - loop system

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## Open Loop Systems

Output has no effect on the control action
Output value is not measured, isolated from input
Operates on the basis of time.
Examples: bread toaster, hand drier, traffic
signals, man walking with eyes closed

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## Example of Open Loop System

Washing Machine:
Soaking, washing and rinsing is time operated.
Machine does not measure the output signal,
cleanliness of clothes.
Output signal is not compared with the input
Fixed operating conditions (time)
Accuracy depends on calibration
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Simple in construction and design
Used where inputs are known, disturbance is
minimum and outputs are difficult to measure
Economic as low in cost and low power
consumptions
Easy to maintain

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Not accurate and reliable
Accuracy depends on the accuracy of
calibration
Optimization is not possible
External disturbances effect the system
producing inaccurate results
Changes in parameters require constant
recalibration
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## Closed Loop Systems

Controlling action is dependant on the output or
changes in input
Output is fed back into the input
Feedback signal produces error signal

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## Closed Loop Systems Definitions

Error Signal [e(t)]: Difference between the input and the
feedback signal. Fed into the controller to reduce the error
and bring the output of the system closer to the desired value.
Input transducer sense the input physical quantity and
converts it into a form to be used by the controller [r(t)]
Controlled Variable [c(t)]: quantity which is controlled
Manipulated Variable [u(t)]: quantity which is varied
Output transducer measure the output response and convert it
into a form used by the controller
Output signal arrives back via a feedback path
Summing junction: algebraically sums two or more signals
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Response is more accurate due to correction of
arising errors
Insensitive to external disturbances
Transient response and steady state response
can easily be controlled
Reduced effects of non-linearity
High bandwidth, higher operating frequency
zones
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Complicated in design
Complex and costlier
Oscillations generates within the system
Can get unstable in certain conditions

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## Objective: To control direction and speed of car

Outputs: Actual direction and speed of car
Control inputs: Road markings and speed signs
Possible subsystems: The car alone, power steering system, breaking
system

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Desired
course
of travel +

Error
-

Driver

Steering
Mechanism

Automobile

Actual
course
of travel

## Measurement, visual and tactile

Time response:

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Types of Feedback:
Positive feedback:
When a system tends to
increase output
Small disturbances increase
the
magnitude
of
perturbations (Changes in
normal State)
Tends to cause system
instability
Results
in
exponential
growth,
increasing
oscillations

Examples:
Camera pointed to screen,
Amplifier
oscillations
in
electronics,
microphone
and
speaker resonance, Computer and
social networks.
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Types of Feedback:
Negative Feedback:
System tends to reduce output
Results of a process causes
the operation to reduce
change
Makes system self regulating,
more stable
Reduces the effects of
fluctuations
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