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# Engineering Mechanics :

STATICS
Lecture #06
By,
Noraniah Kassim
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
(UTHM),

## CENTER OF GRAVITY AND CENTROID

Todays Objective:
Students will be able to determine:
a) The location of the centroid using
the method of integration.

Learning Topics:
Applications
Method of integration

APPLICATION

W wdx dA A
0

OP W xdW
L

OP A xdA x A
0

## A distributed load is represented by plotting the

equal to the area under the load curve.
A distributed load can be replace by a concentrated
load with a magnitude equal to the area under the
load curve and a line of action passing through the
area centroid.

## DETERMINATION OF CENTROID BY INTEGRATION

x A xdA x dxdy xel dA
yA y dA y dxdy yel dA

x A xel dA

x ydx

yA yel dA

y
ydx
2

## Double integration to find the first moment

may be avoided by defining dA as a thin
rectangle or strip.

x A xel dA

ax
a x dy
2
yA yel dA

y a x dy

## STEPS FOR DETERMING AREA CENTROID

1. Choose an appropriate differential element dA at a general point (x,y).
Hint: Generally, if y is easily expressed in terms of x
(e.g., y = x2 + 1), use a vertical rectangular element. If the converse is
true, then use a horizontal rectangular element.
2. Express dA in terms of the differentiating element dx (or dy).
3. Determine coordinates (x~ , ~y ) of the centroid of the rectangular
element in terms of the general point (x,y).
4. Express all the variables and integral limits in the formula using
either x or y depending on whether the differential element is in
terms of dx or dy, respectively, and integrate.
Note: Similar steps are used for determining CG, CM, etc.. These
steps will become clearer by doing a few examples.

## EXAMPLE (Integration method)

Given: The area as shown.
Find: The centroid location (x , y)
Solution
x,y

~ ~
x,y

## 1. Since y is given in terms of x, choose

dA as a vertical rectangular strip.
2. dA = y dx
3. x~ = x and

= (9 x2) dx
~
y = y/2

EXAMPLE (Continued)
~

4. x = ( A x dA ) / ( A dA )
3

2
2
4
3

x
(
9

x
)
d
x[
9
(x
)/2

(x
)
/
4]
0

(
9

x
)dx
0

[ 9 x (x3) / 3 ]03

= ( 9 ( 9 ) / 2 81 / 4 ) / ( 9 ( 3 ) ( 27 / 3 ) )
= 1.13 m
~

y =

A y dA
A dA

0 ( 9 x2) ( 9 x2) dx
3

(
9

x
)dx
0

= 3.60 m

CONCEPT QUIZ
1. The steel plate with known weight and nonuniform thickness and density is supported
as shown. Of the three parameters (CG, CM,
and centroid), which one is needed for
determining the support reactions? Are all
three parameters located at the same point?
A)
B)
C)
D)

## (center of gravity, no)

(center of gravity, yes)
(centroid, yes)
(centroid, no)

## 2. When determining the centroid of the area above, which type of

differential area element requires the least computational work?
A) Vertical

B) Horizontal

C) Polar

## D) Any one of the above.

IN CLASS TUTORIAL
Given: The area as shown.
Find:

## The x of the centroid.

Plan:

Solution
(x1,,y)

(x2,y)

1. Choose dA as a horizontal
rectangular strip.
2. dA = ( x2 x1) dy
= ((2 y) y2) dy
3. x

( x 1 + x2 ) / 2

0.5 (( 2 y) + y2 )

## IN CLASS TUTORIAL (Continued)

4.

( A x dA ) / ( A dA )
1

A dA =

( 2 y y2) dy

[ 2 y y2 / 2 y3 / 3] 10 =

1.167 m2

1
~
A x dA = 0 0.5 ( 2 y + y2 ) ( 2 y y2 ) dy

0.5 0 ( 4 4 y + y2 y4 ) dy

0.5 [ 4 y 4 y2 / 2 + y3 / 3 y5 / 5 ] 10

1.067 m3
1.067 / 1.167 = 0.914 m

ATTENTION QUIZ
1.

## If a vertical rectangular strip is chosen as the

differential element, then all the variables,
including the integral limit, should be in
terms of _____ .
A) x

B) y

C) z

## 2. If a vertical rectangular strip is chosen, then what are the values of

~
~
x and y?
A) (x , y)

B) (x / 2 , y / 2)

C) (x , 0)

D) (x , y / 2)

HOMEWORK TUTORIAL
Q1 (9-7) :
Locate the centroid of the parabolic area.

## HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q2 (9-9) :
Locate the centroid of the shaded area

## HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q3 (9-14) :
Locate the centroid of the exparabolic segment of area