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Fig.3.1.

4a

Fig.3.1.4b

Fig.3.1.5

DISCHARGE PIPING

SUCTION PIPING
ISOLATION VALVE

ISOLATION VALVE

NON RETURN VALVE

PI

PRESSURE
INDICATOR

CONCENTRIC
REDUCER
ECCENTRIC
REDUCER
F.S.D

'Y' TYPE
STRAINER

DRAIN
CL PUMP CASTING

(1) Element removal space to be considered for strainer.


(2) A straight length of 3-D is recommended at suction nozzle.
COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL PUMP SUCTION AND DISCHARGE PIPING
SYSTEM

ECC. REDUCER

DRAIN

Fig.3.1.7

TYPICAL SUCTION LINE SUPPORT

FCV
BYPASS LINE

BYPASS LINE
(ALT)

COOLER

Fig.3.1.8
ARRANGEMENT FOR MINIMUM FLOW FOR CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

USE OF ECCENTRIC REDUCERS ALLOWS


LARGER FLANGES ON VALVES TO CLEAR

Fig.3.1.9
ECCENTRIC REDUCERS AT PUMP CONNECTIONS

The complexity of piping system design, maintenance,


and troubleshooting requires the process Engineers, the
Maintenance Engineers and the Piping Engineers on the
same Wavelength and work more closely together.

Fig.3.1.10

EQUIPMENTANDPIPINGLAYOUT-HEATEXCHANGERS

EQUIPMENTANDPIPINGLAYOUT-

HEATEXCHANGERS
The following general concepts apply for locating the heat
exchangers.
a) Exchangers should be located adjacent to the related
equipment., e.g. Reboilers should be located attached/
next to their respective towers, condensers should be
located next to reflux drums close to tower.
b)
Exchangers should be close to the other process
equipment e.g. in case of draw off flow
through an
exchanger from a vessel/reactor
bottom, the
exchanger
should be close to and
under the vessel or reactor to
have short pump
suction lines. Overhead condenser
shall be
placed above the reactor to have minimum
horizontal piping.

c) Exchangers connecting two equipment, one on shell


side and the other on the tube side, located at a
distance, should be placed where two streams meet,
and on that side of the yard where majority of
related
d)

equipment is placed.
Exchangers between process equipment and the
battery limit. e.g. product coolers, should be

located

near the battery limit to reduce pipe

rum.
e) Stack those exchangers which can be grouped
together to simplify piping and save plot space.
f)

Leave space and access around the exchanger flanges


and heads, and tube bundle cleaning/pulling space in
front and in line with the shell.

g)

While locating exchangers in a row, arrange the


saddle to have more economical overall (lined up or
combined) foundation / structure design. Further,
travelling gantry can be provided in such case to
handle a row of exchangers.
h)
The heat exchanger shall be located in the equipment
layout with respect to the fixed saddle and the
same is
located closer to the head
i)
Outline the clearances and working space in the front
and around both ends of the exchanger to facilitate
shell cover and tube bundle removal as well as
maintenance and cleaning.
j)
The channel end shall face the roadside for
convenience of tube removal and the shell
cover
the rack side.

The various clearances shall be as indicated in Fig. 3.3.1.


All Dimensions are in mm
Fig.3.3.1a

Fig.3.3.1b

The basic principles adopted in the heat exchanger


piping are:
a)

The working spaces should be kept clear of


any
piping and accessories to facilitate
channel, shellcover and tube bundle removal,
as well as
maintenance and
cleaning.
b)
Excessive piping strains on the exchanger
nozzles
from the actual weight of pipe
and fittings and
from forces of thermal
expansion should be
avoided.
c) The piping shall be arranged in such a way that no
temporary support will be required for removing
the channel and tube bundle.

d) Provide easily removable spool pieces, flanged

e)
f)
g)
h)

elbows, break flanges, or short pipe runs to provide


adequate clearances for the operation of tube
removal.
The pipe lines with valves and control valves should
run along with access aisle close to the exchanger.
Pipe line connecting the exchanger with adjacent
process equipment can run point to point just above
required head room.
Steam lines connecting the header on the rack can
be arranged on either side of the exchanger
Valve handles should be made accessible from the
grade and from access way. These access way
should be used for arranging manifolds, control
valves stations and instruments

i) To avoid condensate drainage toward exchanger, the


preferred connection for steam lines is to the top of
the header. However, there is nothing wrong in having
a steam connection from the bottom of the header if
steam traps are placed at the low point
j)
The standard dimensions related to exchanger
piping
are given in sketch.
These details are illustrated in Fig. 3.3.2.

Fig.3.3.2a

Fig.3.3.2b

Thebasictypesusedinthechemicalprocess
industryare

1) Fixed tube-sheet Heat Exchange


2) `U Tube Heat Exchangers
3) Floating Head type Exchangers
4) Kettle type Heat Exchanger

HEATEXCHANGERNOMENCLATURE
NOMENCLATURE OF HEAT EXCHANGER
COMPONENTS
For the purpose of establishing standard terminology, the
following figures illustrates types of heat exchangers. Typical
part and connections, for illustrative purposes only, are
numbered for identification
1.
2.
3.
4.

Stationary Head Channel


Stationary Head Bonnet
Stationary Head Flange-Channel or Bonnet
Channel Cover

5. Stationary Head Nozzle


6. Stationary Tubesheet
7. Tubes
8. Shell
9. Shell Cover
10. Shell Flange-Stationary Head End
11. Shell Flange-Rear Head End
12. Shell Nozzle
13. Shell Cover Flange
14. Expansion Joint
15. Floating Tubesheet
16. Floating Head Cover
17. Floating Head Cover Flange

18. Floating Head Backing Device


19. Split Shear Ring
20. Slip-on Backing Flange
21. Floating Head Cover External
22. Floating Tubesheet
23. Packing Box
24. Packing Gland
25. Packing Gland
26. Lantern Ring
27. Tierods and Spacers
28. Transverese Baffles or Support Plates

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.

Impingernent Plate
Longitudinal Baffle
Pass Partition
Vent Connection
Drain Connection
Instrument Connection
Support Saddle
Lifting Log
Support Bracket
Weir
Liquid Level Connection

FRONT END
STATIONARY HEAD TYPES

REAR END
HEAD TYPES

SHEEL TYPES

E
A

L
FIXED TUBESHEET
LIKE "A" STATIONARY HEAD

ONE PASS SHELL

CHANNEL
AND MOVABLE COVER

FIXED TUBESHEET
LIKE "B" STATIONARY HEAD

TWO PASS SHELL


WITH LONGITUDINAL BAFFLE

FIXED TUBE SHEET


LIKE "N" STATIONARY HEAD
SPILT FLOW

BONNET (INTEGRAL COVER)

H
C

REMOVABLE
TUBE
BUNDLE
ONLY

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITH TUBESHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER

OUTSIDE PACKED FLOATING HEAD

DOUBLE SPLIT FLOW

S
J

FLOATING HEAD
WITH BACKING DEVICE
DIVIDED FLOW

T
PULL THROUGH FLOATING HEAD

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITH TUBESHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER

K
KETTLE TYPE REBOILER

U
U-TUBE BUNBLE

X
SPECIAL HIGH PRESSURE CLOSURE

W
DIVIDED FLOW

EXTERNALLY SEALED
FLOATING TUBESHEET

32

32

37

27

29

14

12

34

2
5

34

12

33

37

BEM

36

34

34

12

31

34

10

12 34

35

30

CFU

21

27

35

32

33

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association

36 4

34

34

31

12

34

6 10 33

23

28

27

35

35

AEP

32

15

34

23

12

24

25 22

19

20

36

21

36

34

10

34 12

28

35

12 34

27

35

23 24 26 24 23 15 1

34

12

34

36

Standards Of The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Associ

36

5 34 31 6

31 12

25

27

28

18 36

37
36
3

15

18
1

34

10

35

35

12

34

11

13

12

33

Standard Of The Exchanger Manufactures Association

34

35

12

9
36

34 5

31

15

17

36

34

16

34

38

34 12

35

27

28

AKT

35

12

34

39

The following alterations can be suggested in order to


achieve optimum piping arrangement.
a) Elbow nozzle permits lowering of heat exchanger to grade
to
have better accessibility to valves and instruments.
(Refer Fig. 3.3.3)
b) Angular nozzle can save one or two bends in the pipe
line.The
maximum angle from the vertical centre line can be about
300.
(Refer Fig. 3.3.4)
c)
Horizontal exchanger can be turned vertical for
conserving
floor space. Vertical exchangers can be changed to
horizontal

Fig.3.3.3

Fig. 3.3.4a

Fig. 3.3.4b

Interchange flow media between tube side and shell side.


This can give the following advantages

If hotter liquid is allowed to flow through the tube,


this
will minimize the heat loss and/or avoid use
of thicker
shell insulation.
If high pressure fluid flows on the tube side, only tubes,
tube sheets, channels and cover have to be designed for
high pressure. This reduces shell side thickness and the
cost.
Corrosive liquid should pass through the tube so that
only the tubes and the channels have to be made of
corrosion resistant material.
If one medium is dirty and the other is clean, passing
clean through the shell will result in easier tube bundle
removal and cleaning.

Shell side volume is much more than the tube side


and hence vaporization or condensation of free
flowing fluid is more effective in shell.
When hazardous chemicals are water cooled, the
water is passed through the shell. The tube leakage
will contaminate the cooling water. On the other
hand, the shell leakage can vent process material to
the atmosphere.

Fig.3.3.5b

Fig.3.3.5c

VESSELS
The piping associated with these vessels are simple.
Economy of piping and access to valves and instruments
depend on well-oriented nozzles. The nozzle and support
orientation can be evaluated as below. (Refer Fig. 3.4.1)

Inlet/outlet nozzles
Vents and Drains
Relief Valves/Rupture Disc
Level gauges
Pressure and Temperature tap-offs.
Manholes
Vessel saddles

Fig.3.4.1

Fig.3.4.2

Fig.3.4.3

Fig.3.4.4

Fig.3.4.5

CombinedApproach
Let us analyze the equipment layout and Piping design for a
distillation column, which is more of an integrated unit than the
individual equipment discussed earlier.
Interactions between hydraulic requirements and piping
configurations require close attention to many fluid and
mechanical details, in order to obtain the most efficient and
economical distillation units.
The layout to start from the top visualising the layout as a
whole..

Fig.3.5.1

Fig.3.5.2

Fig.3.5.3


Fig.3.5.4


Theprimeconsiderationinallthesecasesistheperformance
to achieve the process requirements integrated with
economy..

Some of the common principles adopted in making the plant layout


most cost effective both in capital cost and operating cost can be
listed as below:
For outdoor plants the most economical location of process
equipment is at grade level. Supporting structures and platforms are
not required. Construction is easy. Most valves and instruments are
accessible from ground. Operation and maintenance are convenient.
The principle to be remembered is to eliminate, combine and
minimize structures to achieve cost savings, as structures for
supporting heavy process equipments are costly.
The grading of plot shall be decided to make the cutting and
leveling equal effecting in minimum earth moving.

When piling is required for foundation due to bad quality of soil,


grouping of equipment shall be done which will result in less
number of piles. The cost of additional piping is usually much
smaller.
Pumping saturated liquid with pumps having high NPSH
elevates the suction vessels. Alternative pump with low NPSH is
usually more expensive. Cost comparison between equipment
support and cost of pumps can point to an economical solution.
Large diameter underground cooling water or sewer lines can
influence equipment spacing. Locating the major cooling water
consumer nearer to the cooling water inlet location will reduce the
size of pipeline to be taken frther as well as spacing of foundation.

Locate heat exchangers in a row arranging the saddles lined up or


combined to have more economical over all foundation or structure
design. Travelling gantry in such case can handle row of heat
exchangers.
Tube removal and cleaning space should be arranged. This may
increase the built-up area in an indoor plant but will reduce the
downtime of dismantling and shifting the same to the workshop for
this activity.
As far as tanks and vessels are concerned, the economy in layout
depends upon well-oriented nozzles. Facility for the removal of
internals will reduce the shut down time as well.
******