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Design of A Compression Spring

SUPERIOR COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY,


LAHORE

Group Members

Ghulam Ali
Hafiz Mirza Sharaz Akbar
Hafiz Irfan
Irfan
Rana Zunair

Contents:
Introduction to Spring
Types of Spring
Helical spring
Types of helical spring
Helical compression spring
Application of helical
compression spring
Helical compression spring
design
Process flow

What Is a Spring?
Spring is a mechanical device which store and
release energy.

Types of Springs
Helical Spring
Leaf Spring

Helical Spring

Leaf Spring

Helical Spring
The helical springs are made up of a wire coiled
in the form of a helix and are primarily intended
for compressive or tensile loads.

Types of Helical Spring


Compression Spring
Extension Spring
Torsion Spring

Compression
Spring

Extension Spring

Torsion Spring

Helical Compression Spring


The helical springs are made up of a wire coiled in
the form of
a helix and are primarily intended for compressive

Application Of Helical Compression Spring


Helical compression springs are our most
common spring type. They have a wide range of
applications and can be found in almost all
mechanical products, for example as important
components in door locks, in compressors, in
automobiles, in electric switches and more.

Engine
valve

Car
Suspension

Spring Design
Customer requirement (Load & Fitment)
Selection of material
Material select with factor of safety. Minimum
10% extra load design at spring designing time
And 50% maximum extra load design at spring
designing time.

Feb-2014

Calculation
formulae
Table 1 below shows the symbols used for the design of
springs. The values of the modulus of rigidity G to be
used for the design of springs shall be as shown in Table2.
Table 1 Symbols used for the calculations
Symbol

Description

Unit

wire diameter

mm

D1

Inside diameter of
coil

mm

D2

Outside diameter
of coil

mm

mean diameter of
coil

mm

Nt

Total number of
coils

Na

number of active
coils

Hs

Solid height

mm

Hf

free height

mm

c=D/d

spring index

shear modulus

N/mm2

load

deflection

mm

spring constant

N/mm

Torsional stress

N/mm2

Corrected
torsional stress

N/mm2

Table 2 Modulus of rigidity:G Unit N/mm2)


Material

Value of G

Spring steel materials


Hard steel wire
Piano wire
Oil tempered steel wire

7.85104

Stainless steel
spring wire

SUS304
SUS316

6.85104

SUS631J1

7.35104

Brass wire
Nickel-silver wire

3.9104

Phosphor bronze wire

4.2104

Beryllium copper wire

4.4104

Fundamental calculation formulae

(1)Relationship among load, spring rate and


deflection

(2)Obtaining spring rate from spring


dimensions
Since, with a compression coil spring, the
deflection occurs from the torsion of the wire
diameter, the spring rate k is shown as:

Fundamental calculation formulae


(3)Wire diameter
Wire diameter find from stress. We know force
and area.

(4)Torsional stress

Fundamental calculation formulae


(5)Corrected torsional stress

(6)Spring index

Fundamental calculation formulae


(7)Solid height (in case of ground coil end)

where, (t1 + t2): sum of thicknesses of


both coil ends
(8)Pitch

Process Flow
1st Process coiling:
A series of connected spirals or concentric rings
formed by gathering or winding of wire with
machine to wind into a shape resembling a coil
with require dimensions.

Coiling

Process Flow
2nd Process creep tempering:
Spring clamp in fixture with the help of hydraulic
press and pressing block press springs with
hydraulic press till Spring Coil Should be Solid.
After clamping springs creep temper
with require temperature and Socking time
Tempering
furnace
Fixture Before
Clamping

Fixture
Pressing Block

Fixture After
Clamping

Creep tempering

Tempering

fixture

Process Flow

3rd Process tempering:


Temper the spring for stress relieving after
tempering spring cool in the air. Tempering is a
low temperature heat treatment process
normally performed after neutral hardening,
double hardening, atmospheric carburizing,
carbonitriding or induction hardening in order to
reach a desired hardness/toughness ratio.

Tempering
furnace

Process
Flow
4 Process grinding:
th

Grind The spring With Require Length Or end


Thickness. Spring squareness is the angular
difference between the outermost limit of a
spring
diameter
when
compared
to
a
straightedge at a right angle to a horizontal flat
plate on which the spring is standing. This
affects how the axial force produced by the
spring can be transferred to adjacent parts in a
mechanism.

Grinding

Process Flow
5th Process straightening:
Squareness of a compression spring refers to the
perpendicularity of the spring to its own axis. A
spring that is "square" will exert more uniform loads,
which may be needed in critical applications.
Springs with ground ends generally offer better
squareness than those with closed only ends.

Straightening

Process Flow

6th Process shoot peening:


Shot peening is a cold working process in which the
surface of a spring is bombarded with small
spherical media called shot. Each piece of shot
striking the surface creates a small indentation or
dimple. Overlapping dimples develop an even layer
of metal in residual compressive stress. Fatigue
cracks will not start or propagate in a compressively
stressed zone. When a residual compressive stress
is produced in the surface, the tensile stress created
by the applied load must first overcome the residual
compressive stress before the resultant surface
stress becomes tensile.

Shoot peening

Process Flow

7th Process load testing:


Compression tests are used to determine how a
product or material reacts when it is compressed,
squashed, crushed or flattened by measuring
fundamental parameters that determine the
specimen behavior under a compressive load.

Load testing

THANKS