Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

Ralph Kairupan

INTRODUCTION
The field of psychotherapy is fragmenting

from future shock.


New therapies are placed on the market.
1976 (Parloff): 130 therapies; 1979 (Time

Magazine): > 200 therapies.


Best answer to treatment: claming 80 100%
succes.
Students, practitioners, and patients are faced
with the dilemma of too many choices.
James O. Proschaska: SYSTEM OF PSYCHOTHERAPY - A Transtheoretical Analysis,
1984

Definition (1)
Dorlands Illustrated Medical

Dictionary, 30th Ed. 2003: treatment


of mental disorders and behavioral
disturbances using verbal and nonverbal communication, including
such psychological techniques as
support, suggestion, persuasion,
reeducation, reassurance, and insight,
in order to alter maladaptive pattern of
coping, relieve emotional disturbance,
and encourage personality growth.

Definition (1b)
Dorlands Illustrated Medical

Dictionary, 30th Ed. 2003:


treatment of mental disorders and

behavioral disturbances
using verbal and non-verbal
communication,
in order to alter maladaptive pattern of
coping, relieve emotional disturbance,
and encourage personality growth.

Definition (2)
Kaplan & Sadocks Pocket Handbook of

Clinical Psychiatry. 4th, Ed. 2005:


Psychotherapy is the treatment for mental
illness and behavioral disturbances in which
a trained person establishes a
professional contract with the patient and
through definite therapeutic
communication, both verbal and nonverbal, attempt to alleviate the emotional
disturbance, reverse or change maladaptive
pattern of behavior, and encourage
personality growth and development.

Definition (2b)
Kaplan & Sadocks Pocket Handbook of

Clinical Psychiatry. 4th, Ed. 2005:

the treatment for mental illness and behavioral

disturbances
in which a trained person
establishes a professional contract with the
patient
and through definite therapeutic
communication, both verbal and non-verbal,
attempt to alleviate the emotional disturbance,
reverse or change maladaptive pattern of
behavior, and encourage personality growth and
development.

Definition (3)
W.F. Maramis (Catatan Ilmu Kedokteran

Jiwa, 1980): Psikoterapi ialah suatu cara


pengobatan terhadap masalah emosional
seorang pasien yang dilakukan oleh
seorang yang terlatih dalam hubungan
profesional secara sukarela, dengan
maksud hendak menghilangkan,
mengubah atau menghambat gejalagejala yang ada, mengoreksi perilaku
yang terganggu, dan mengembangkan
pertumbuhan kepribadian secara positif.

Definition (4)
Noyes & Kolb Modern Clinical Psychiatry, 5 th

Ed., 1958: as the treatment of emotional and


personality problems and behaviors by
psychological means.

Therapist-patient

relationship (with its


interpersonal experiences)
is the important
therapeutic factor

Noyes & Kolbs


highlight:
Through this relationship the patient knows

that:

he/she

can share his/her feelings, attitudes,

and experiences with the physician and


that the latter with his/her warmth,
understanding empathy, acceptance and
support will not depreciate, censure or judge
him/her no matter what he/she may reveal,
but will respect his/her dignity and worth.
This desired, positive, patient-therapist relationship

with its psychotherapeutic value is often known as


positive transference (not transference situation).

Improvements Factors
PRECONDITION FOR THERAPY:

NONSPECIFIC VARIABLES
Expectation (patient expect the treatment to

be effective)
The Hawthorne Effect (people can improve
just by having special attention paid to them)
Classic Hawthorne studies: on the effect of
improve lighting on productivity in a factory, it
was discovered that participants increase their
output as a result of just being in a study and
having special attention paid to them

Improvements Factors
PROCESS OF CHANGE
Consciousness Raising (patients awareness)
Freuds assumption: therapeutic cure is to make
the unconscious conscious
Catharsis (Gr. katharsis a cleansing; evoking

emotions was one of the best means of


providing personal relief and improvement)
Psychiatry: released of thought, ideas, and
repressed material from the unconscious,
accompanied by an emotional response and relief.

Improvements Factors
PROCESS OF CHANGE
Choosing (an increase in choosing involves

the individual becoming aware of new


alternatives, including the conscious creation
of new alternatives for living)
Conditional Stimuli (and counter conditioning
approach; people change by making critical
changes in the conditional stimuli that control
their response)
Contingency Control (behavior is under the
control of the consequences to which it leads
punish & reward).

James O. Proschaska:

Psychoanalysis
Existential Analysis
Client-Centered Therapy
Gestalt Therapy
Alderian Therapy

Rational Emotive Therapy


Transactional Analysis
Emotional Flooding Therapies

Behavior Therapy
System Therapies

BAHAN AJAR KULIAH PSIKIATRI

Psikoterapi
Analisis Transaksional,
Terapi Rasional Emotif,
Terapi Tingkah Laku

Kaplan & Sadock


(Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry. 4 th, Ed.
2005)

Psychoanalysis & Psychoanalytic

Psychotherapy
Brief Dynamic Psychotherapy
Behavior Therapy
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
Family Therapy
Interpersonal Therapy
Group Therapy

Kaplan & Sadock


(Pocket Handbook of Clinical Psychiatry. 4 th, Ed.
2005)

Couple & Marital Therapy


Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Hypnosis
Guided Imagery
Biofeedback
Paradoxical Therapy
Sex Therapy

Task:

Describe (shortly but

clearly) the
characteristics of
Kaplan & Sadocks
classification of
psychotherapies