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THIRD EDITION

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
AN INTEGRATED APPROACH
Dee Unglaub Silverthorn, Ph.D.

Chapter 23
Endocrine Control of Growth
and Metabolism
PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by
Dr. Howard D. Booth, Professor of Biology, Eastern Michigan University
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

About this Chapter


How several key hormone pathways influence
metabolism
How cortisol is produced & regulated; how it
impacts many tissues
How thyroid hormones are regulated and their
effect on targets
The role of growth hormone in growth &
development
Calcium metabolism and its role in bones and cell
regulations
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Endocrine Control in Review

Hypothalamic pituitary: feedback loop & trophic


control
Hormones can have receptors on many diverse
tissues
Usually initiating protein change or synthesis in
target cells
Problems come from too much or too little
hormone

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production

Aldosterone, sex hormones, cortisol


Synthesized from cholesterolsteroid ring

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adrenal Cortex: Steroid Hormone Production

Figure 23-2: Synthesis pathways of steroid hormones


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cortisol Effects: Body Responses to Stress


Permissive effect on glucagon
Memory, learning & mood
Gluconeogenesis
Skeletal muscle breakdown
Lipolysis, calcium balance
Immune depression
Circadian rhythms

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cortisol Effects: Body Responses to Stress

Figure 23-4: Circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Control of Cortisol Secretion: Feedback Loops

External stimuli
Hypothalamic
Anterior Pituitary
Adrenal cortex
Tissues

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23-3: The control pathway for cortisol

Cortiso: Role in Diseases and Medication


Use as immunosuppressant
Hyperimmune reactions (bee stings)
Serious side effects
Hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome)
Tumors (pituitary or adrenal)
Iatrogenic (physician caused)
Hypocortisolism (Addison's disease)

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Thyroid Gland: Hormones and Iodine Metabolism


C-cells calcitonin (covered later)
Follicule cells
Amine hormones:
thyroxine, T1, T2 & T3
growth
metabolism
Thermogenic
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Thyroid Gland: Hormones and Iodine Metabolism

Figure 23-7b: The thyroid gland


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Thyroxine and its precursors: Structure & Synthesis

Figure 23-8: Thyroid hormones are made from tyrosine and iodine

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Thyroxine and its precursors: Structure & Synthesis

Figure 23-9: Thyroid hormone synthesis


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

T3 & T4 Control Pathways & Diseases from


Malfunction
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary
Thyroid
Hypothyroidism
Goiter (TSH )
Grave's disease

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

T3 & T4 Control Pathways & Diseases from


Malfunction

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23-12: Thyroid hormone pathway

Growth Hormone (GH): Functions & Malfunctions


Polypeptide H from hypothalamus/anterior
pituitary
growth (with T4, sex Hs, paracrines)
metabolism
protein & bone synthesis
Regulation hypothalamus
Dwarfism
Acromegaly
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Growth Hormone (GH): Functions & Malfunctions

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23-16: Growth hormone pathway

Bone Growth and Calcium Metabolism

Epiphyseal plate new bone growth site


Chondrocytes, osteoblasts & calcification build
bone

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bone Growth and Calcium Metabolism

Figure 23-19: Bone growth at the epiphyseal plate


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Calcium Metabolism:

Maintain [plasma]: from diet, from bone


"storage", recycled
Key roles: muscle contraction, bone support, cell
signaling

PLAY

Animation: Fluids & Electrolytes: Electrolyte Homeostasis

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Calcium Metabolism:

Figure 23-20: Calciumbalanceinthebody


Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Control of Calcium Balance & Metabolism


Parathyroid H
Calcitrol
Vitamin D
Sun/diet
Calcitonin
Thyroid
C-cells
(Phosphate balance)
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23-23: Endocrine control of calcium balance

Osteoporosis:
Disease of Bone Growth & Calcium Metabolism
Bone reabsorption
exceeds deposition
Osteoclasts
mobilize Ca++ to
plasma
Factors:
inadequate Ca++
intake, genes,
hormones,
smoking
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23-21: Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption

Summary
In addition to insulin and glucagon, metabolism
is influenced by hormones from adrenal, thyroid,
parathyroid and hypothalamus
Cortisol catabolic activities responding to stress
Growth H anabolic activities to promote growth
PTH, cacitrol, & calcitonin balance plasma [Ca++]
for bone synthesis, muscle contraction, & cell
signaling
Endocrine diseases result from pathway or
glandular hypo or hyper secretion
Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings