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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION
TO MANAGEMENT
AND
ORGANIZATIONS
Prentice Hall, 2002

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Who Are Managers?


Manager

someone who works with and through


other people by coordinating their work
activities in order to accomplish
organizational goals
changing nature of organizations and
work has blurred the clear lines of
distinction between managers and nonmanagerial employees
Prentice Hall, 2002

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Who Are Managers? (cont.)


Managerial Titles
First-line managers - manage the work of nonmanagerial individuals who are directly involved
with the production or creation of the
organizations products
Middle managers - all managers between the
first-line level and the top level of the
organization
manage the first-line managers

Top managers - responsible for making


organization-wide decisions and establishing the
plans and goals that affect the entire organization
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Organizational Levels

Top
Managers
Middle
Managers
First-line
Managers
Non-managerial Employees
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What Is Management?
Management

the process of coordinating work activities


so that they are completed efficiently and
effectively with and through other people
elements of definition
Process - represents ongoing functions or
primary activities engaged in by
managers
Coordinating - distinguishes a
managerial position from a nonmanagerial one
Prentice Hall, 2002

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What is Management? (cont.)


Management (cont.)
elements of definition
Efficiency - getting the most output
from the least amount of inputs
doing things right
concerned with means
Effectiveness - completing activities so
that organizational goals are attained
doing the right things
concerned with ends

Prentice Hall, 2002

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Efficiency and Effectiveness in


Management
Efficiency (Means)

Effectiveness (Ends)

Resource
Usage

Goal
Attainment

Low Waste

High Attainment

Management Strives For:


Low resource waste (high efficiency)
High goal attainment (high effectiveness)
Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do?


Management Functions and Process
most useful conceptualization of the managers job
Planning - defining goals, establishing strategies
for achieving those goals, and developing plans to
integrate and coordinate activities
Organizing - determining what tasks are to be
done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be
grouped, who reports to whom, and where
decisions are made
Leading - directing and motivating all involved
parties and dealing with employee behavior issues
Controlling - monitoring activities to ensure that
they are going as planned

Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)


Management Functions and Process (cont.)
Management process
set of ongoing decisions and work
activities in which managers engage as
they plan, organize, lead, and control
managerial activities are usually done in
a continuous manner

Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)


Management Roles

specific categories of managerial behavior


Interpersonal - involve people and duties
that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature
Informational - receiving, collecting, and
disseminating information
Decisional - revolve around making choices
emphasis that managers give to the various
roles seems to change with their
organizational level
Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)


Management Skills
Technical - knowledge of and proficiency in a
certain specialized field
Human - ability to work well with other people both
individually and in a group
Conceptual - ability to think and to conceptualize
about abstract and complex situations
see the organization as a whole
understand the relationships among subunits
visualize how the organization fits into its broader
environment

Prentice Hall, 2002

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EXHIBIT 1.5: SKILLS NEEDED AT DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS

Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)


Managing Systems
System - a set of interrelated and
interdependent parts arranged in a manner that
produces a unified whole
provides a more general and broader picture of what
managers do than the other perspectives provide

Closed system - not influenced by and do not


interact with their environment
Open system - dramatically interact with their
environment
organizations - take in inputs from their environments
transform or process inputs into outputs
outputs are distributed into the environment

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The Organization As An Open


System
Environment
System
Inputs
Raw materials
Human resources
Capital
Technology
Information

Transformation
Employees work
activities
Management
activities
Technology and
operations methods

Outputs
Products and services
Financial results
Information
Human results

Feedback

Prentice Hall, 2002

Environment

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)


Managing Systems (cont.)
managers must
coordinate various work activities
ensure that interdependent parts
work together
recognize and understand the impact
of various external factors
decisions and actions taken in one
organizational area will affect other
areas and vice versa
Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)


Managing in Different and Changing Situations
require managers to use different
approaches and techniques
Contingency perspective - different ways
of managing are required in different
organizations and different circumstances
stresses that there are no simplistic or
universal rules
contingency variable

Prentice Hall, 2002

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EXHIBIT 1.8: POPULAR CONTINGENCY


VARIABLES

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What Is An Organization?
Organization
a deliberate arrangement of people to
accomplish some specific purpose
elements of definition
each organization has a distinct purpose
each organization is composed of people
all organizations develop some deliberate structure

todays organizations have adopted:


flexible work arrangements
open communications
greater responsiveness to changes

Prentice Hall, 2002

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EXHIBIT 1.10: THE CHANGING


ORGANIZATION

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Why Study Management?


Universality of Management
management is needed
in all types and sizes of organizations
at all organizational levels
in all work areas
management functions must be
performed in all organizations
consequently, have vested interest in
improving management
Prentice Hall, 2002

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EXHIBIT 1.11: UNIVERSAL NEED FOR


MANAGEMENT

Prentice Hall, 2002

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Why Study Management?


(cont.)
The Reality of Work
most people have some managerial
responsibilities
most people work for a manager

Challenges of Being a Manager


- being a manager is hard work
- must deal with a variety of personalities
- must motivate workers in the face of uncertainty

Prentice Hall, 2002

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Why Study Management?


(cont.)

Rewards of Being a Manager

create an environment that allows


others to do their best work
provide opportunities to think creatively
help others find meaning and fulfillment
meet and work with a variety of people

Prentice Hall, 2002

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