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Embedded system

Jeff Lee
Surwin Technologies, Inc.

An embedded system is a computer syst


designed to perform one or a few dedicate
functions, often with Real-time computing
constraints.

A general-purpose computer, such as a


Personal computer, is designed to be flexib
and to meet a wide range of an end-user's
needs.

Netgear DG632 ADSL Modem/Router

4 Microprocessor (AR7: combines a MIPS 32-bit RISC proce


6 RAM
7 Flash memory

The labeled parts are as follows:


1. Telephone decoupling electronics (for ADSL).
2. Multicolour LED (displaying network status).
3. Single colour LED (displaying USB status).
4. Main processor, a TNETD7300GDU, a member of TI AR7 product lin
5. JTAG (Joint Test Action Group) test and programming port.
6. RAM, a single ESMT M12L64164A 8 MB chip.
7. Flash memory, obscured by sticker.
8. Power supply regulator.
9. Main power supply fuse.
10. Power connector.
11. Reset button.
12. Quartz crystal.
13. Ethernet port.
14. Ethernet transformer, Delta LF8505.
15. KS8721B ethernet PHY transmitter receiver.
16. USB port.
17. Telephone (RJ11) port.
18. Telephone connector fuses.

Some other examples:

Physically, embedded systems range from


portable devices such as digital watches an
MP3 players, to large stationary installations
like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the
systems controlling nuclear power plants.
Complexity varies from low, with a single
microcontroller chip, to very high with multi
units, peripherals and networks mounted in
a large chassis or enclosure.

History

* One of the first recognizably modern embe


systems =>
Apollo Guidance Computer : Charles Stark Dr
(MIT Instrumentation Laboratory ), early 196

The Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) wa


on-board digital computer installed in each
Apollo program spacecraft, both the Comma
Module (CM) and the Lunar Module (LM). It
provided onboard computation to support
spacecraft guidance, navigation and control.

The Apollo flight computer was the first to u


Integrated circuits (ICs). The Block I version
used 4,100 ICs, each containing a single 3-i
NOR logic gate.
AGC software was written in AGC assembly
Language

RAM: 2K words
ROM: 36K words
Both had cycle times of 11.72micro-second
The memory word length : 16 bits, 15 bits o
and 1 odd-parity bit.

Apollo 1024 bit core memory module

LOGIC FLOW DIAGRAM


MODULE NO. A24
INOUT VII
DRAWING NO. 2005273

NOR GATE:
RTL
7402

TTL

The display and keyboard (DSKY) user


interface of the Apollo Guidance Computer
(AGC) mounted on the control panel of the
Command Module, with Flight Director Attit
Indicator (FDAI) above.

Apollo computer DSKY user interface uni

LM DSKY interface diagram

*An early mass-produced embedded system


was the Autonetics D-17 guidance compute
for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961
It was built from transistor logic and had a
hard disk for main memory.

Killer Application
Personal digital
assistant: A handheld
computer, also known
as palmtop computer

Hewlett Packard : HP 200LX (1994)


A MS-DOS compatible computer in a
palmtop format

Palm Computing : Palm Pilot


(1996)

Casio BE300 : Pocket PC


(Windows CE 3.0)

Smart Phone

Windows Mobile Phones

Killer Application
PND Portable Navigation Device

TFT LCD : 1960 (1991


Notebook)

*Amazon kindle : Nov. 2007

E Ink is a type of electronic paper manufac


by E Ink Corp., founded in 1997 based on
research started at the MIT Media Lab.

1.upper layer
2.transparent electrode layer
3.transparent micro-capsules
4.positive charged white pigments
5.negative charged black pigments
6.transparent oil
7.electrode pixel layer
8.bottom supporting layer
9.Light
10.White
11.black

The principal components of electronic ink ar


millions of tiny microcapsules, about the
diameter of a human hair.

Each microcapsule contains positively charge


white particles and negatively charged black
particles suspended in a clear fluid.

When a negative electric field is applied, the


particles move to the top of the microcapsule
become visible to the reader. At the same tim
an opposite electric field pulls the black part
to the bottom of the microcapsules where th
are hidden.

Specifications
Display: 6" diagonal E-Ink electronic paper
display, 600 x 800 pixel resolution
167 ppi, 4-level gray scale
Size (in inches): Kindle 1: 7.5" x 5.3" x 0.7"
Weight: Kindle 1: 10.3 ounces
Internal memory: 256 MB with 180 MB free
Expansion Memory: Officially up to 4GB SD.
Wireless: EVDO with no subscription required
System requirements: None, because it does
require a computer
Languages Supported: English
File Types Supported: AZW, PRC, MOBI, MP3,
AA,TXT

MOBI is the format used by the MobiPocket


Reader.

AZW is basically the MOBI format using the h


compression option.
PRC stands for Palm Resource Compiler.

AA : Audible
Format 4 is roughly the equivalent of MP3 wi
128K encoding.

Windows CE 6.0 OS Design Example


Marvell PXA310 CPU

S/W: BSP (Board Support Package)


H/W: Schematic
Documents