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CHAPTER Four

Current and Voltage Transformers


Introduction

Excellent text books are already available dealing with the design theory and
operation of power transformers. (l) This chapter therefore concentrates on
highlighting certain important aspects of:
Voltage selection-calculation of transformer voltage ratio, specification of
insulation levels, examples of voltage regulation, rating, tap ranges and
impedance calculations.
Thermal aspects-specification of temperature rise and ambient conditions. Some
comments are made on constructional features of different types of transformer in
common use together with the purpose and selection of accessories. A review of
the relevant IEC Standards and summary of the parameters to be specified by the
user when detailing a transformer for a particular application are given.

Introduction
A current transformer is used to transform a primary current quantity in terms of
its magnitude and phase to a secondary value such that in normal conditions the
secondary value is subs proportional to the primary value. IEC I 5 covers CTs for
measuring and protective applications.

Protection CT classifications
Protection CTs, unlike measuring CTs, may be required to operate at many times
full load current. Linearity under these conditions is not of great importance. The
essential point is that saturation must be high enough to drive the magnetizing
current and the secondary current under fault conditions, There are three classes
of protection CTs 5P or lOP (P stands for protection) and X.

5P or l0P classification
Several terms are used in connection with CTs and these are described below:

Rated primary (or secondary) current


This value, marked on the rating plate of the CT, is the primary or secondary
current upon which the performance of the transformer is based.

Rated transformation ratio


The rated transform at ion ratio is the ratio of rated primary current to rated secondary
current and is not necessarily exactly equal to the turns ratio.
The magnetizing current depends upon the magnitude of the primary voltage which in
turn at depends upon the (tide and power fact or of lie burden. It is possible
partially to compensate for (he magnetizing current ratio error in CT designs
slightly reducing the number of turns un the secondary.

Composite error
Under steady state conditions the r.m.s. value of the difference between the
instantaneous values of the primary current and the actual secondary current
multiplied by the rated transformation ratio.

Rated output at rated secondary current


The value, marked on the rating plate, of the apparent power in VA that the
transformer is intended to supply to the secondary circuit at the rated secondary
current.
The rated VA should be specified to correspond to the relay and connecting lead
burden at rated CT secondary current. If relays are mounted on the switchgear
adjacent to the CTs then the lead burden can often be neglected. It is best to allow
a margin for greater than anticipated burden hut this should he included in the
specification for the rated accuracy limit factor.

Rated accuracy limit factor RALT


The primary current up to which the CT is required to maintain its specified
accuracy wit Ii rated secondary burden connected.
Ideally the RALI current should not be less than the maximum fault current of
the circuit up to which. relay grading is required, and should he based upon
transient reactance fault calculations. switchboard is likely to have future
additional fault (hen it is sensible to specitya RA LI corresponding to the
Rated outputs higher than IS VA and rated accuracy limit factors higher than
It) are not recommended For general purposes.
Use the highest possible (I ratio.
Investigate relays with a lower burden. Solid state relays have oft).: VA or less
and do tot change with tap setting.

Typical electromagnetic protection relays have a burden of about 3 VA at the


setting current. The burden increases on the minimum plug setting (0% for
typical overeurrent relay). Precautions are therefore taken in protection relay
designs to ensure that the increase in burden does not exceed half the value as
the tap setting is changed. In addition to the relay burden the CT and connecting
cables must he taken into account. A 100 m length of 2.5 mm cable would have
a burden of about ohms per core or (1.74 VA It a lamp secondary rating and
18.5 VA for as amp rating. Hence the advanta of using I amp secondary CTs for
substations with long distances between relays and CTs,

A typical marking on a protection CT would be IS VA Class 5P 10, where VA is


the VA output at rated secondary current, Class 5Pindicates that this a
protection (P) CT with a omposite error of <5% at rated accuracy lin primary
current and l the rated accuracy limit factor (RALF) for the C i.e. overcurrent 10
x rated normal current.

Fig. 1
Typical
magnetizing
characteristic

Class X. classification
For protective purposes current transformer heat ions may be defined in
terms of the knee point. This is the voltage applied to the secondary
terminals of the C I. wit It all other windings being open circuited, which,
when increased by 10%. causes the exerting current to he increased by
50%. A typical CT magnetizing characteristic is shown in Fig.1 .
In addition the CT must be of the low reactance type and the turns ratio
error must not exceed 0.25%. Bar type CTs with jointless ring cores and
evenly distributed secondary windings will provide negligible secondary
winding leakage reactance and will usually satisfy this reaelanee
requirement. For Class X CTs turns compensation is not permitted and a
400/I Class X CT should have exactly 400 turns. Such carefully controlled
CTs are used in pilot sure and balanced differential protection schemes
and the manufacturer usually provides an excitation curve at the design
stage which may be later confirmed by routinetesting and site tests. Such
CTs could be specilied for use with IDMTL relays but this is not usual.

Other standards
American Standards designate (is with negligible secondary
leakage reactance as Class C and the performance may be
calculated in a similar manner to RS3938 Class X CTs. (lass T
(Ts have some leakage and tests are called the ANSI
Standards to establish relay performance. In addition to the
leakage reactance classification the (Is are specilied with a
permissible burden in ohms equivalent to 25, 50. 100 or 200 VA
for 5 A-rated Cl The secondary terminal voltage rating is the
voltage the transformer will deliver to a standard burden at 20
times rated secondary current without exceeding l0% ratio
resurrection . This is not exactly equivalent to he (lass X Ci
knee point s-olta since the terminal voltage will he of a lower
value due to losses in the secondary winding resistance.

Metering CTs
For nonprotection purposes metering (Ts need perform very accurately but only
over the normal range of load tip to. say. l3tl% till load current. Metering ls are
specified in terms of:
ratio
rated secondary burden
accuracy class.
Accuracy classes recognized by IEC 185 are 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and I. Accuracy classes 3 and 5 arc
also available from manufacturers. For each class the ratio and phase angle error must he
within specified limits at 5.20. IOU and I 20t of rated current. A class 0.2 metering CT means
that at 20% of the rated current the percentage ratio error will be 0.2, i.e. for a class 0.2 CT
with a rated secondary current of 5 A the actual secondary current would be SA 0.01 A.
Phase displacement error is also specified in the standard. For special applications an
extended current range up to 200/o may be specified Above these ranges accuracy is
considered to he unimportant since thest conditions will only occur under abnormal fault
conditions. There is at advantage in the CT being designed to saturate under fault conditions
so that the connected metering equipment will have a lower short-time therina withstand
requirement. It is preferable not to use common CTs to supply hot] protection and metering
equipment. If. for example, only one set of protection CTs is available then it is good practice
to separate the from the protection relays by means of storable interposing CT or by adding
storable shunt reactors. This has the advantage of protecting the instrumentation and reducing
the overall burden under Fault conditions.

Design. and construction considerations


The power system design engineer should appreciate the regard to CT design.

Core materials:
Core materials
Non -oriented silicon steel usually least expensive.
Grain-oriented cold rolled silicon steel gives a higher knee point voltage and
lower magnetizing current.

The knee point voltage is directly proportional to the number: of


secondary turns which are usually determined by the turns ratio. 1-ugh
voltages can appear across the open circuit secondary terminals of
CTs. Therefore switching contact arrangements must he added to
protection schemes such that when relays are withdrawn from service
(for example for maintenance) their associated secondary CT terminals
are automatically short circuited.

Space considerations:
The design of a CT is based upon the best compromise between choosing
maximum core cross-section for the highest knee point voltage and choosing
maximum cross-section of copper for he s winding to- achieve the lowest
winding resistance.
The transition from steady state current to fault current conditions is accompanied
by a direct current component. The magnitude of the DC component depends
upon the point on the wave at which the fault occurs.

fig. 2. CT terminal markings

Fig. 3. Ring CT

Terminal markings
The terminals of a CT should be marked as indicated in the diagrams shown in
Fig. 2. The primary current flows from P1 to P2 and it is conventional to put the P1
terminal nearest the circuit breaker. The secondary current flows from SI to 52
through the connected leads and relay burden. A typical ring CT is shown in Fig. 3.
Checking the correct polarity of CTs is essential for differential protection schemes
and a simple method is explained .

Specifications
Typical format for setting out CT requirements on a substation circuitbycircuit
basis. Open terminal substation CTs will also require insulator details (creep age,
arcing horns, impulse withstand, etc.) to he specified.

Electromagnetic VTs
These are fundamentally similar in principle to power
transformers but with rated outputs in VA rather than kVA or
MVA. It is usual to use this type voltage transformer up to
system rated voltages of 36 kV. Above this voltage level
capacitor VTs become cost effective and are more frequently
used. The accuracy depends upon the control of leakage
reactance and windins resistance which determines how the
phase and voltage errors vary witf burden. Permeability and
core losses affect the magnetizing current and the errors at
low burdens. Therefore electromagnetic measurement VTs
normal operate at lower flux densities than power
transformers. The derivation of residual voltages for earth
fault protection using open delta ten windings and five lath or
three single phase \is is explained .

It is usual to provide fuse protection on the HV side of electromagnetic VTs up to


36 kV. In addition fuses or NIC are used on the secondary side to grade wit It the
HV protection and to prevent any wiring faults.
Capacitor voltage transformers IC Vis) use a series string of capacitors to provide
a voltage divider network. They are the most common form of voltage
transformer at rated voltages of 72 kV and higher. A compensating device is
connected between the divider tap point and the secondary burden in order to
minimize phase and voltage errors. In addition a small conventional voltage
transformer is used to isobaric the burden from the capacitor chain. Tapping
connections are added to this wound isolating transformer in order to
compensate for manufacturing tolerances in the capacitor chain and to improve
the overall accuracy of the finished CVT unit. Coupling transformers may also be
added to allow power line carrier signaling frequenees to be superimposed upon
the power network. A typical arrangement is shown in Fig. 4. In addition to the
accuracy class limits described for electromagnetic transformers CVTs must be
specified to avoid the production of over-voltages due to feiro resonant effects
during transient system disturbances.
Specifications
Capacitor voltage transformers and coupling capacitors may be specified in the
format .

Fig. 6 Transformer neutral ring


CT with insulator support